regular occurrence of certain phenomena in cycles of about 24 hours
involunary voiding with underlying pathophysiologic origin after the age that bladder control is usually achieved; nocurnal enuresis is bedwetting
a sujective state of weariness; lack of energy
situation in which the circadian rhythms of different hormones adjust to changes in sleeping time at different rates
medication that includes or maintains sleep
difficulty sleeping; may be characterized by trouble falling or staying asleep or by waking up too early
sleeping disorder characterized by sudden uncontrollable episodes of sleep.
group of disorders (sleep walking, enuresis) involving autonomic and motor activity associated with partial arrousal from sleep.
polygraph recordings of electrophysiologic changes in brain waves (electroensephelogram), eye movements (electrooculogram), and muscles (electromyogram)
Physical and emotional state of decreased muscle and cognitive activity
readily reversable state of altered consciousness in which awareness and responsiveness to environment are decreased.
Condition in which, at least 5 times an hour, the client stops breathing for 10 seconds or more during sleep.
Time it takes one to get to sleep after going to bed.
refers to an urge of varying intensity to go to sleep
Stage 1 NREM
Transitional stage between drowsiness and sleep, indicated by a shift from alpha waves to low-voltage, fast theta waves on EEG. Muscles relax, respirations even, pulse decreases. This stage only lasts a few min. and if you awaken someone in this stage they will usually tell you they weren't yet asleep.
Stage 2 NREM
Still relatively light sleep from which the person is easily awakened. Bursts of sleep spindles appear on EEG. Rolling eye movements continue and snoring may occur.
Stage 3 and 4 NREM
Deep sleep aka slow wave sleep. Stage 3 and 4 are usually discussed together and are only differentiated by the amt of delta waves. Muscles are relaxed but muscle tone is maintained. These are stages which snoring, sleepwalking (somanmbulism), and bedwetting (enuresis) most likely occur. Hard to awaken.
Closely resembles wakefulness, except for very low muscle tone. Brain waves recorded are similar to those noted when awake by the EEG. BP and PR show wide variation and may fluctuate rapidly. Respirations are irregular and oxygen consumption increases. THERMOREGULATION IS LOST. Sexual arousal occurs in both sexes.
Usually about 90 minutes total moving through 1-4 and then back to 3 and 2. From here we enter REM. During the early part of the night, 3-4 (slow wave sleep) is longer, and REM is shorter maybe only lasting 3-4 minutes. REM increases throughout the night and maybe up to 45 minutes in the morning.
Reticular Activating System, part of the brain stem consisting of interconnecting neurons from pons, medulla, and midbrain.
Neurotransmitter associated with sleep
Serotonin. Derived from tryptophan a natural amino acid. Serotonin decreases activity of RAS thereby sustaining sleep. Other neurotransmitters are acetylcholine and norepinephrine.
How many times does one naturally change position during nighttime sleep?
The Suprachiasmatic nucleus
Functions as the "clock" for circadian rhythms.
What stage of sleep decreases most as people age?
Stage 4 sleep
What stage of sleep is affected by acute and chronic illness?
Stage 3 sleep
diagnostic term used to refer to persistent insomnia associated with somatized tension and learned sleep preventing associations. Concern with the inability to sleep further interferes with sleep, contributing to a vicious cycle.
Episodes of profound weakness during intense emotion (occurs in 70% of people w/ sleep apnea).
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
collapse of the upper airway despite respiratory effort. Most common.
Occurs due to neurogenic failure to trigger respiratory effort. Occurs in stroke victims and brain injuries.
a combination of both apneas; obstructive and neurogenic failure.
When do parasomnias occur (night terrors, enuresis, sleepwalking, sleep talking)?
During slow wave sleep (Stage 3 and 4) and occurs most in children. Usually, a family history of these behaviors is present.