energy storage, structural elements, cell recognition and adhesion, covalently attached to proteins/lipids to act as signals for cellular localization and metabolism
What are the four main functions of carbohydrate polymers?
next to last
Which carbon is the "penultimate"?
D-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____
L-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____
The "D/L" designation is based on which carbon?
the term for a molecule that differs only in the configuration around one carbon atom
Which monosaccharide is an important component of nucleic acids?
Which monosaccharide is a blood sugar?
Which monosaccharide is a fruit sugar?
alcohol + aldehyde --> ?
alcohol + ketone --> ?
In forming cyclic structures, the carbonyl carbon joins to the OH of which carbon?
The carbonyl carbon bonds with the OH of the C5 carbon and becomes ______ , meaning it is now chiral
In a cyclic structure, the "alpha" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is ____
In a cyclic structure, the "beta" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is _____
At equilibrium, what designation of anomeric carbons make up the 2/3 majority?
glucose forms six-membered ring compounds called _______
fructose forms five-membered ring compounds called _______
For chiral carbons, OH groups maintain orientation when going from linear to cyclic. For example, OH groups pointing to the left in a linear structure will point ____ in a cyclic structure
how many carbons would a hexose have?
three carbon molecule with aldehyde group
Describe an aldotriose molecule
five carbon molecule with a ketone group
Describe a ketopentose
For reducing sugars, which carbon is necessary since it is oxidized in the process?