CHE 319 Monosaccharides

Created by KLL 

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23 terms

energy storage, structural elements, cell recognition and adhesion, covalently attached to proteins/lipids to act as signals for cellular localization and metabolism

What are the four main functions of carbohydrate polymers?

next to last

Which carbon is the "penultimate"?

right

D-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____

left

L-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____

penultimate

The "D/L" designation is based on which carbon?

epimer

the term for a molecule that differs only in the configuration around one carbon atom

ribose

Which monosaccharide is an important component of nucleic acids?

glucose

Which monosaccharide is a blood sugar?

fructose

Which monosaccharide is a fruit sugar?

hemiacetal

alcohol + aldehyde --> ?

hemiketal

alcohol + ketone --> ?

C5

In forming cyclic structures, the carbonyl carbon joins to the OH of which carbon?

anomeric

The carbonyl carbon bonds with the OH of the C5 carbon and becomes ______ , meaning it is now chiral

down

In a cyclic structure, the "alpha" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is ____

up

In a cyclic structure, the "beta" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is _____

beta

At equilibrium, what designation of anomeric carbons make up the 2/3 majority?

pyranoses

glucose forms six-membered ring compounds called _______

furanoses

fructose forms five-membered ring compounds called _______

up

For chiral carbons, OH groups maintain orientation when going from linear to cyclic. For example, OH groups pointing to the left in a linear structure will point ____ in a cyclic structure

six

how many carbons would a hexose have?

three carbon molecule with aldehyde group

Describe an aldotriose molecule

five carbon molecule with a ketone group

Describe a ketopentose

anomeric

For reducing sugars, which carbon is necessary since it is oxidized in the process?

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