A&P 169 Chapter 20, 21, 22

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255 terms · soliman faytech fall 2013

1, 3, 4

which branches of the coronary arteries listed below supply the left ventricle?
1. posterior interventricular branch of the right coronary
2. marginal branch
3. anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery
4. circumflex branch of the left coronary artery
a. 1, 3, 4
b. 2
c. 1, 2, 4
d. 1, 2, 3, 4

3 and 5

Which phases of a heartbeat shown in the diagram involve repolarization of the heart's four chambers?

10-17

the primary response will peak how many days after an exposure?
a. 1 day or less
b. 2-7
c. 10-17
d. 20-30
e. over a month

40, 93.3

what would the pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure be for an individual with a blood pressure of 120/80?
a. 40; 100
b. 40; 93.3
c. 40; 103.3
d. 200; 100
e. 100; 200

120/80

normal blood pressure for a young adult male is
a. 120/80
b. 130/90
c. 80/120
d. 100/80
e. 150/85

A

which of the labeled layers in the diagram of the arterial wall is composed of a simple squamous epithelium, a basement membrane, and a layer of elastic tissue?

A

Which labeled structure in the figure acts as the natural pacemaker of the heart?

A

Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left common carotid artery?

A

Which of the labeled diagrams shows coarctation of the aorta?

A

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the pulmonary semilunar valve?

a

in the diagram, where do T cells mature?

a

which structure is the main duct for the return of lymph to the blood?

a

lymph travels to the subcapsular sinus from which structure?

accessory hemiazygos vein

which vessel in the figure is labeled A?
a. accessory hemiazygos vein
b. hemiazygos vein
c. right suprarenal vein
d. pericardial vein
e. azygos vein

ACE inhibitors

which categories of hypertension drugs lower blood pressure by blocking formation of angiotensin II, which results in vasodilation and decreased aldosterone secretion?
a. diuretics
b. ACE inhibitors
c. Beta blockers
d. calcium channel blockers
e. anabolic steroids

active immunity

natural exposure to an infectious agent leads to
a. passive immunity
b. active immunity
c. both of these choices
d. none of these choices

all of these

which of the following types of tissues contains continuous capillaries?
A. skeletal muscle
B. smooth muscle
C. connective tissue
D. lungs
E. all of these

all of these choices

which of the following negatively affects the immune system?
A. smoking
B. lack of sleep
C. sedentary lifestyle
D. stress
E. all of these choices

all potent vasodilators

what do the following chemicals have in common: potassium, hydrogen ions, lactic acid, nitric oxide, and adenosine?
a. all potent vasoconstrictors
b. all potent vasodilators
c. used to stimulate smooth muscle contractions
d. directly regulate the cardiac center of the hypothalamus
e. decrease systolic blood pressure

allergen

antigens that induce an allergic reaction are called
a. lymphotoxin
b. perforin
c. granulysin
d. interleukin-1
e. allergen

Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium

What is the function of foramen ovale during fetal life?
a. allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium
b. allowing blood to flow directly from the right ventricle into the left ventricle
c. serves as a valvue in the vena cava to regulate venous blood flow
d. prevents back flow of blood from aorta into the left ventricle
e. prevents back flow of blood from pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle

anaphylactic shock

an acute allergic response can lead to
a. transplantation
b. retroviruses
c. anaphylactic shock
d. passive immunity
e. active immunity

anergy cell

which is an inactive, self responsive cell?
a. deleted cell
b. hybridoma cell
c. epitaphic cell
d. anergy cell
e. natural killer cell

angioblasts

during embryonic development, blood vessels are formed by
a. endodermal cells
b. pluripotent stem cells
c. angioblasts
d. fibroblasts
e. osteoblasts

Anterior interventricular sulcus

This groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.
a. coronary sulcus
b. anterior interventricular sulcus
c. posterior interventricular sulcus
d. coronary sinus
e. anterior intraventricular sulcus

antigen

which induces the production of a specific antibody?
a. phagocytosis
b. antigen.
c. antibody
d. defensin
e. immunoglobulin

antigen presenting cells

which class of cells includes macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells?
a. antigen presenting cells
b. primary lymphocytes
c. t cells
d. rbc
e. epitopes

Aortic semilunar valve

Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?
a. right atrium
b. interventricular septum
c. bicuspid valve
d. aortic semilunar valve
e. pulmonary semilunar valve

Aortic stenosis

Which is a disorder in which the aortic semilunar valve is narrowed?
a. aortic insufficiency
b. rheumatic fever
c. mitral valve prolapse
d. aortic stenosis
e. mitral insufficiency

arch of aorta

Which structure in the figure is labeled C?

arteries

which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart to other organs?
a. arteries
b. capillaries
c. venules
d. arterioles
e. veins

arterioles

this type of blood vessel plays a key role in regulating blood flow into capillaries
a. arteries
b. arterioles
c. venules
d. veins
e. aorta

arterioles

which of the types of blood vessels have high pulsing blood pressure?
a. arterioles
b. capillaries
c. venules
d. veins
e. vena cavae

artificially acquired passive immunity

which type of adaptive immunity will result from intravenous injection of immunoglobulins?
a. naturally acquired active immunity
b. naturally acquired passive immunity
c. artificially acquired active immunity
d. artificially acquired passive immunity
e. none of these choices

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

which of the following hormones would NOT stimulate changes that lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure?
A. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
B. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
C. aldosterone
D. angiotensin
E. epinephrine

Auricle

This pouch-like structure increases the total filling capacity of the atrium.
a. ventricle
b. coronary sulcus
c. fossa ovalis
d. interatrial septum
e. auricle

auscultation

The process of listening to heart sounds using a stethoscope is referred to as
a. palpitation
b. palpation
c. auscultation
d. fibrillation
e. echocardiography

azygos vein

which vessel in the figure is labeled G?
a. accessory hemiazygos vein
b. hemiazygos vein
c. right suprarenal vein
d. pericardial vein
e. azygos vein

B

In the diagram, where is the ascending aorta?

B

In the diagram, which labeled structure prevents blood flow from the right ventricle back into the right atrium?

B

which of the types of capillaries shown in the figure is commonly found in the kidneys, villi of the small intestine, choroid plexuses, and some endocrine glands?

B

Which blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left subclavian artery?

B

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the marginal branch of the right coronary artery?

B

which labeled structure in the figure is a metarteriole?

B

Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represent formation of the endocardial tubes?

B

which of the labeled layers in the diagram of the arterial wall consists mainly of elastic fibers and smooth muscle fibers?

B

Which layer of the pericardium consists of dense irregular connective tissue?

B

Which labeled structure in the figure is the AV node?

b

lymph flowing from the afferent lymphatic vessel will travel next to which structure in the figure?

b

in the diagram, where do pluripotent stem cells come from?

b

which structure is an axillary node?

B and D

In the diagram, which labeled structures are atrioventricular valves?

B cells

what type of cell is located in area B in the figure?
a. B cells
b. dendritic cells
c. macrophages
d. T cells
e. plasma cells

blood colloid osmotic pressure

the largest driving force for pulling fluid from the interstitial spaces back into the capillaries is
a. interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
b. interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
c. blood colloid osmotic pressure
d. blood hydrostatic pressure
e. glomerular hydrostatic pressure

blood viscosity

which characteristic of blood depends mostly on the ratio of RBCs to plasma volume?
a. total blood volume
b. blood viscosity
c. venous return
d. clotting time
e. immunoglobin profile

blood viscosity

all of the following aid in venous return of blood to heart EXCEPT
A. the skeletal muscle pump
B. the respiratory pump
C. blood viscosity
D. venoconstriction
E. venous valves

both 2 and 3

in which of the following types of blood vessels is blood pressure NOT pulsing?
1. arteries
2. capillaries
3. arterioles
4. venules
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 3 only
d. 4 only
e. both 2 and 3

C

Which labeled blood vessel carries oxygenated blood from the right lung back to the heart?

C

Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represent formation of the primitive heart tube?

C

which labeled structure in the figure is precapillary sphincter?

C

Which of the labeled diagrams shows an atrial septal defect?

C

which of the capillaries shown in the figure has an incomplete or absent basement membrane?

C

Which labeled structure in the figure represents the only potential pathway for conducting action potentials from the atria to the ventricles?

c

in the diagram this vessel drains lymph from the upper right side of the body into venous blood using a subclavian vein

c

in the diagram, what is comprised of white and red pulp?

c

lymph travels to the medullary sinus from which structure?

c

which structure is a peyer's patch?

c

which region includes B cells, follicular dendritic cells and macrophages?

Cardiac conduction system

This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.
a. systemic circuit
b. intercalated discs
c. cardiovascular center
d. cardiac conduction system
e. pulmonary circuit

Cardiac muscle

Which type of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?
a. smooth muscle
b. skeletal muscle
c. cardiac muscle
d. all the muscle types contain approximately the same number
e. mitochondria are not found in muscle cells

cardiac output

The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute is called the
a. cardiac output
b. cardiac input
c. stroke volume
d. heart rate
e. pulse pressure

cardiac output

the volume of blood that circulates through the systemic (or pulmonary) blood vessels per minute is called
a. stroke volume
b. tidal volume
c. cardiac output
d. cardiac reserve
e. total peripheral resistance

cardiac reserve

The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the
a. stroke volume
b. peripheral resistance
c. afterload
d. cardiac reserve
e. venous return

cardiomyoplasty

A corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient's own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart.
a. myocardial infarction
b. tetrology of Fallot
c. cardiomyopathy
d. cardiomegaly
e. cardiomyoplasty

classical and alternative complement systems

which leads to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis, and lysis of microbes?
a. classical complement system
b. alternative complement system
c. apoptosis
d. classical and alternative complement systems
e. Hapten activation

collateral circulation

the alternate route of blood flow to a body part through an anastomosis is called
a. a thoroughfare channel
b. a blood reservoir
c. a detour route
d. collateral circulation
e. microcirculation

complement proteins

which anti-microbial substances promote cytolysis, phagocytosis, and inflammation?
a. transferrins
b. perforins
c. complement proteins
d. defensins
e. interferons

connective tissue

when the umbilical cord is tied after birth, the umbilical arteries close by filling in with
a. placental fluid
b. platelet plugs
c. connective tissue
d. smooth muscle
e. epithelial tissue

Coronary artery

Which blood vessel is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?
a. coronary artery
b. coronary vein
c. coronary sinus
d. vena cava
e. myocardial vein

cytokine

which is a small hormone that can stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions?
a. enzyme
b. kinins
c. cytokine
d. mhc
e. leukocyte

D

which labeled structure in the figure is a capillary?

D

Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a remnant of fetal circulation that is not directly involved in adult circulation?

D

What labeled structure in the figure is the ligamentum arteriosum?

D

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery?

D

Which labeled structure in the figure receives deoxygenated blood from the blood vessel labeled A?

d

plasma cells are located in which area in the figure?

d

which structure is an iliac node?

d

which region includes B cells, plasma cells, and macrophages?

d

lymph travels to the efferent lymphatic vessel from which structure in the figure?

d

in the diagram, which consists of a medulla, medullary sinus and reticular fibers?

d and i

in the diagram these are the bronchomediastinal trunks

decreased length of the systemic circulatory route

which of the following would NOT result in an increase in systemic vascular resistance?
A. decreased diameter of systemic arterioles
B. increased blood viscosity
C. decreased length of the systemic circulatory route
D. increased vasoconstriction of systemic arterioles
E. increased red blood cell count

decreased respiratory rate

when chemoreceptors in blood vessels detect high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, they stimulate all of the following changes EXCEPT
A. increased vasoconstriction of arterioles
B. increased blood pressure
C. decreased respiratory rate
D. increased sympathetic stimulation of arterioles and veins
E. increased vasoconstriction of veins

Dense connective tissue

What type of tissue comprises the valves of the heart?
a. dense connective tissue
b. areolar connective tissue
c. hyaline cartilage
d. cardiac muscle tissue
e. adipose tissue

diffusion

which is the most important method of capillary exchange?
a. diffusion
b. transcytosis
c. bulk flow
d. primary active transport
e. secondary active transport

Ductus arteriosus

In a fetus, this structure allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
a. fossa ovalis
b. foramen ovale
c. trabeculae carneae
d. descending aorta
e. ductus arteriosus

E

In the diagram, where is the coronary sulcus?

E

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery?

E

What labeled structure in the figure divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries to carry blood to the lungs?

E

Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is an artery carrying deoxygenated blood?

E

Which labeled structure in the figure carries the cardiac action potential directly into the contractile fibers of the ventricular myocardium?

e

lymph travels from the medullary sinus to which structure in the figure?

e

which structure is an inguinal node?

E and I

In the diagram, these structures contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.

Epicardium

This layer of the heart wall consists of mesothelium and connective tissue.
a. epicardium
b. myocardium
c. endocardium
d. fibrous pericardium
e. none of the answer selections are correct

exchange vessels

capillaries are also referred to as
a. exchange vessels
b. vasoconstrictors
c. vasodilators
d. pressure reservoirs
e. distributing vessels

F

What labeled structure in the figure is the descending aorta?

F

This is comprised of a thin layer of endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissue.

F

Which blood vessel shown in the figure carries oxygenated blood to the lower thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity of the body?

f

which structure is the cisterna chyli?

False

since immune function tends to decline with age, the incidence of autoimmune disease also increases with age TRUE or FALSE

false

the cephalic, basilic, median, antebrachial, radial, and ulnar veins originate in the head TRUE OR FALSE

fever

what intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair?
a. complement proteins
b. perforin
c. fever
d. macrophages
e. natural killer cells

fibrous pericardium

The outermost layer of the pericardium, which consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue, is called the
a. parietal layer of the pericardium
b. serous pericardium
c. fibrous pericardium
d. epicardium
e. endocardium

filtration

the pressure-driven movement of fluids and solutes from blood into interstitial fluid is called
a. reabsorption
b. filtration
c. bulk flow
d. osmosis
e. transcytosis

foramen ovale

in fetal circulation, what is the opening between the right and left atria called?
a. ductus venousus
b. umbilicus
c. fossa ovalis
d. foramen ovale
e. ductus arteriosus

G

What labeled structure in the figure increases the blood volume capacity of an atrium?

G

In the diagram, where is the left auricle of the left atrium?

G

Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a pouch-like extension that serves to slightly increase the capacity of an atrium?

G

In the diagram, where are the trabeculae carneae?

g

which structure is a lymphatic vessel?

gap junctions

Cardiac muscle fibers are electrically connected to neighboring fibers by
a. desmosomes
b. tight junctions
c. gap junctions
d. interneurons
e. chordae tendineae

h

which structure is the right lymphatic duct?

hapten

what stimulates an immune response ONLY when it is attached to a larger carrier molecule?
a. epitope
b. antigen
c. hapten
d. MHC antigen
e. CD8

Hassall's corpuscles

in which part of the thymus are T cells thought to die?
a. capsule
b. trabeculae
c. epithelial cells
d. Hassall's corpuscles
e. T cells do not die in the thymus

heart rate and stroke volume

cardiac output is dependent on both
a. heart rate and stroke volume
b. stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance
c. heart rate and systemic vascular resistance
d. blood type and stroke volume
e. blood pressure and heart rate

Helper T cells

which cells display CD4 proteins and interact with MHC class II antigens?
a. cytotoxic t cells
b. Helper T cells
c. Memory T cells
d. MHC antigens
e. B cells

hemiazygos vein

which vessel in the figure is labeled B?
a. accessory hemiazygous vein
b. hemiazygos vein
c. right suprarenal vein
d. pericardial vein
e. azygos vein

a higher resting cardiac output

In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A) a higher cardiac reserve
B) a higher resting cardiac output
C) a higher stroke volume
D) hypertrophy of the heart
E) resting bradycardia

hypertension

Which condition would lead to an increase in the afterload for the ventricles thus lowering stroke volume and cardiac output?
a. hypotension
b. hypertension
c. increased venous return
d. decreased venous return
e. positive inotropic agents

hypertension

_____ is persistently high blood pressure
a. hypotension
b. orthostatic hypotension
c. hypertension
d. phlebitis
e. normotensive

hypovolemic

this type of shock is due to decreased blood volume
a. hypovolemic
b. cardiogenic
c. vascular
d. obstructive
e. neurogenic

I

This portion of the heart wall is responsible for the pumping action.

i

which structure is a cervical node?

IgA

which class of antibodies is mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk, and GI secretions?
a. IgG
b. IgA
c. IgM
d. IgD
e. IgE

IgM

which class of antibodies indicates a recent invasion?
a. IgA
b. IgE
c. IgM
d. IgD
e. IgG

IgM

which immunoglobulin is a pentamer?
a. IgG
b. IgM
c. IgD
d. IgA

immunocompetent

when B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are described as being
a. immunocompetent
b. pluripotent stem cells
c. primary lymphatic cells
d. specifically promoted
e. germ cells

immunodeficiency diseases

the inability of the immune system to protect the body from a pathogen causes
a. immunodeficiency diseases
b. allergy
c. autoimmune disease
d. transplantations
e. graft

in a resting human is normally 1 minute

circulation time
a. varies with diet
b. is set by the hypothalamus
c. in a resting human is normally 1 minute
d. depends on hormones released from the liver
e. that is lower than 20 seconds will lead to heart failure

in the medulla oblongata

the cardiovascular center is located
a. in the thoracic cavity
b. in the cerebral cortex
c. in the cerebellum
d. in the medulla oblongata
e. in the hypothalamus

increased arteriolar vasodilation

which of the following would NOT result in an increase in arterial blood pressure?
A. increased blood volume
B. increased sympathetic stimulation
C. increased heart rate
D. increased stroke volume
E. increased arteriolar vasodilation

increased compliance of the aorta

all of the following changes are commonly observed in the cardiovascular system in response to aging EXCEPT
A. decreased cardiac output
B. increased compliance of the aorta
C. loss of cardiac muscle strength
D. decline in maximum heart rate
E. increased systolic blood pressure

Increased potassium levels in plasma

Which of the following would lead to a decreased heart rate?
A) Increased norepinephrine release
B) Increased thyroid hormone release
C) Increased potassium levels in plasma
D) Increased calcium levels in plasma
E) Increased sympathetic stimulation

increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility

Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?
a. increased preload, increased after load, increased contractility
b. decreased preload, decreased after load, decreased contractility
c. increased preload, decreased after load, increased contractility
d. decreased preload, increased after load, increased contractility
e. increased preload, increased after load, decreased contractility

increased systemic vascular resistance

which of the following would be a normal response of the cardiovascular system to a decreased frequency of action potentials arising from the baroreceptors?
a. increased systemic vascular resistance
b. increased parasympathetic stimulation
c. decreased heart rate
d. decreased stroke volume
e. decreased cardiac output

inferior vena cava

which vessel carries the venous blood from the lower body into the right atrium?
a. inferior vena cava
b. superior vena cava
c. tibial vein
d. coronary vein
e. iliac vein

Inner cortex

which portion of the lymph node does not contain any lymphatic nodules?
a. inner cortex
b. outer cortex

interferons

which anti-microbial substances reduce viral replication (in uninfected cells)?
a. transferrins
b. perforins
c. complement proteins
d. defensins
e. interferons

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