the process of human devlopment
Social Learning Theories
People are criminals because they hang out with other criminals and learn how Akers
Differential Association Theory
deviant behavior is learned in interaction with other people, for the most part within intimate primary groups such as families and peer groups
view that law violators learn to neutralize conventional values and attitudes enabling them to drift back and forth between criminal and conventional behavior
techniques of neutralization
denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of the victim, condemnation of the condemmers, appeal to higher loyalites
most tested in society, strong emperical support batter aintervention and pervention program BIPP
Social control theory
The view that people commit crime when the forces binding them to society are weakened or broken. HERSHI
a strong moral sense that renders a person incapable of hurting others or violating social norms
Commitment to conformity
A strong personal investment in conventional institutions, individuals, and processses that prevent people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements.
rugters student, roomate
Social Reaction Theory
The view that society produces criminals by stigmatizing certain individuals as deviants, a label that they come to accept as a personal identity.
descrived those making the rules as moral enerpreneurs
successful degradation ceremonies
A course of action or ritual in which someones identity is publicly redefined and destroyed and they are thereafter viewed as socially unacceptable
Norm violations that a person commits for the first time and without considering them deviant
A norm violation or crime that comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents, who apply a negative label with long-term consequences for the violator's self-idenity and social interactions.
Process whereby secondary deviance pushes offenders out of mainstream society and locks them into an escalating cycle of deviance, apprehension, labeling and criminal self identity