EIDWS Common Core 102

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EIDWS PQS Common Core-102

State and discuss the 6 areas that comprise Naval Doctrine. (102.1)

1. Naval Warfare
2. Naval Intelligence
3. Naval Operations
4. Naval Logistics
5. Naval Planning
6. Naval Command and Control

(ref: Naval Doctrine Pub 1, Naval Warfare)

State the 7 principles of Naval Logistics. (102.2)

1. Responsiveness- the right support @ the right time @ the right place
2. Simplicity
3. Flexibility
4. Economy
5. Attainability
6. Sustainability
7. Survivability

(ref: Naval Doctrine Pub 4, Naval Logistics)

State the 1st Navy ship named after an enlisted man, and why. (102.3)

USS Osmond Ingram (DD255), launched 28 Feb 1919.
Ingram was the first enlisted man killed.

(ref: Bluejackets Manual)

Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy. (102.4)

Oct 13, 1775
- Revolution
- USS Alfred - First flagship
- John Paul Jones

(ref: 14325, BMR)

What 3 classes of Naval vessels existed at the inception of the U.S. Navy? (102.5)

1. ships-of-the-line (large sailing warships)
2. frigates
3. sloops-of-war (small sailing warships)

(ref: 14325, BMR)

Discuss the military custom Gun Salute. (102.6)

Fired only by certain ships and stations as prescribed by the SecNav - 21 gun salutes on Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, and to honor the POTUS.

(ref: Bluejackets Manual)

Discuss the military custom: Dipping the ensign. (102.6)

A salute to merchant ships... it lowers its national colors to half-mast. The Navy ship, at its closest point of approach, lowers the ensign to half-mast for a few seconds, then closes it up, after which the merchant ship raises its own flag. ** The U.S. NEVER salutes first. **

(ref: Bluejackets Manual)

Discuss the military custom: Saluting the Ensign. (102.6)

- Upon coming on board a ship of the Navy, shall salute the national ensign. . . shall stop on reaching the upper platforms of the accommodation ladder, or the shipboard end of the brow, face the national ensign, and render the salute, after which salute the officer of the deck. On leaving the ship, render the salutes in inverse order. The officer of the deck shall return both salutes in each case.
- When passed by or passing the national ensign being carried, uncased, in a military formation, all persons in the naval service shall salute. Persons in vehicles or boats shall also be rendered to foreign national ensigns and aboard foreign men-of-war.

(ref: bluejackets manual)

Discuss the military custom hand salute. (102.6)

Salute from a position of attention. Your upper arm should be parallel to the deck or ground, forearm inclined at a 45-degree angle, hand and wrist straight, palm slightly inward, thumb and fingers extended and joined, with the tip of the forefinger touching the cap beak, slightly to the right of the right eye. Hold the salute until the officer has returned or acknowledged it, then bring your hand smartly to your side.

(ref: bluejackets manual)

Discuss the importance of the Battle of the Coral Sea. (102.7)

7-8 May 1942. First carrier vs. carrier battle. It was a strategic setback for Japan who never again threatened Australia. .
Thanks to the breaking of the Japanese Navy code, the U.S. was alerted to a large Japanese force moving to the Coral Sea to seize Port Moresby on the soughwest coast of New Guinea. It was to be the first step of a planned invasion of Australia. On May 7, during battle The U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk, and the carrier Yorktown was damaged.

(ref: 14325, BMR)

Discuss the importance of the Battle of Leyte Gulf. (102.7)

23 OCT 1944. Japan lost to the U.S. and lost the Philippines.

The final blow to the Japanese navy came October 23, 1944. In a last-chance effort to salvage the Phillippines, the Japanese sent a naval force to Leyte Gulf to attack the U.S. Fleet. Their plan backfired and the operation was a complete failure-the deciding catastrophe for their navy. The loss of the Phillippines severed their empire, and the homeland was cut off from its main source of supply from the south. With the losses at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, the war in the Pacific was approaching its final days.

(ref: bluejackets manual)

Discuss the importance of the Battle of Midway. (102.7)

3-5 June 1942: Midway was the turning point of the Pacific war. The U.S. breaking of the Japanese naval code was again the key element as it had been at Coral Sea a month earlier.
A huge Japanese armada of 160 warships was involved, but commander-in-chief Admiral Yamamoto split his force, sending some ships north to the Aleutian Islands in a diversionary attack. The Japanese retained superior numbers approaching Midway which included 4 aircraft carriers and 11 battleships.
At Midway the U.S. had 3 carriers and no battleships. The Americans knew what was coming because of the broken codes, and Admiral Nimitz positioned his 3 carriers, the Hornet, Enterprise, and Yorktown, out of Japanese reconnaissance range.
As the Japanese carriers launched their planes to assault the Midway defenses, the U.S. planes headed for the enemy carriers. It took attack after attack, but finally the U.S. crews got through and sank 3 Japanese carriers. The next day the fourth carrier was sunk. Japanese planes sank the Yorktown.
In one day Japan lost its bid for control of the Pacific.

(ref: bluejackets manual)

Discuss the importance of the Guadalcanal. (102.7)

13-15 November 1942: After three days of bitter fighting, the Japanese naval forces retreated and U.S. Marines were able to secure the island of Guadalcanal. The Japanese lost 2 cruisers and 6 destroyers. The U.S.S. Juneau was involved in the battle. Navy policy was to place members of the same family on different ships, but the five Sullivan brothers,
from Waterloo, Iowa, insisted on staying together. An exception was made and they all became crewmen onboard the Juneau. The Juneau was damaged during the battle in a close-range night encounter. As it limped off for repairs, it was torpedoed. The Sullivans along with 700 others were lost. Because of this tragedy, Navy policy concerning family member separations was reinstated. A ship was later named in their honor. With the fall of the island, the southern Solomons came under Allied control and Australia was in less danger of attack.

(ref: bluejackets manual)

Discuss the importance of the Battle of Normandy (102.7)

The Navy's most notable Atlantic action may have been its part in the June 6, 1944, invasion of Normandy-the largest amphibious operation in history.

The greatest armada ever assembled carried out minesweeping, shore-bombardment, and amphibious operations and transported supplies and troops. Those operations enabled the Allies to complete D-Day landings successfully and eventually push on to Germany.

(ref: bluejackets manual)

Discuss the importance of the voyage of the Great White Fleet. (102.7)

The exercise demonstrated the strength of the U.S. Navy...

December 16, 1907 - the Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads, Virginia, for a round-the-world cruise to show the flag.

(ref: bluejackets manual)

Discuss the Mercury 3, its impact on history, and which Sailor(s) were involved. (102.8)

05 May1961.
First U.S. manned space flight.
Demonstrated the ability to achieve manual control under

Naval Astronaut - Alan Shepard, USN

(ref: NAVEDTRA 14168A)

Discuss the Gemini 3, its impact on history and Sailor(s) involved. (102.8)

23 Mar 1965.
First U.S. two-man space mission; first spacecraft to maneuver from one orbit to another; 3 Earth orbits.

Naval Astronaut- John W. Young, USN

(ref: NAVEDTRA 14168A)

Discuss Apollo 11, its impact on history and Sailor(s) involved. (102.8)

16 to 24 Jul 1969
First manned lunar landing; the LEM descended to the lunar
surface where astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin spent 21.5
hours deploying scientific instruments and collecting samples.

Neil A. Armstrong, Civilian (Former naval aviator)

(ref: NAVEDTRA 14168A)

Discuss Apollo 17, its impact on history and the Sailor(s) involved. (102.8)

07 to 19 Dec 1972

The seventh and final lunar landing mission.

Eugene A. Cernan, USN, and
Ronald E. Evans, USN

(ref: NAVEDTRA 14168A)

Discuss STS-1, its impact on history, and the Sailor(s) involved. (102.8)

Space Transportation System (STS), or Space Shuttle

12 to 14 Apr 1981 - STS-1 (Columbia)

First orbital test flight of Space Shuttle. All Navy crew. Crew tested opening and closing of cargo bay doors, emergency
donning of pressure suits, and testing of basic systems. Orbiter completed planned 36 orbits and landed at Edwards
AFB, Calif.

John W. Young, USN
Robert L. Crippen, USN

(ref: NAVEDTRA 14168A)

Describe the historical significance of Bletchley Park. (102.9)

- Britain's crypto center
- ENIGMA decipher
- bombe

Bletchley Park, also known as Station X... During World War II, Bletchley Park was the site of the United Kingdom's main decryption establishment, the Government Code and Cypher School. Ciphers and codes of several countries were decrypted there, most importantly ciphers generated by the German Enigma.

The initial design of the bombe was produced in 1939 at the UK Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park.
The function of the bombe was to discover some of the daily settings of the Enigma machines on the various German military networks: specifically, the set of rotors in use and their positions in the machine; the settings of the alphabet rings; and one of the wirings of the plugboard.

(ref: bletchleypark.org/uk, wikipedia)

Describe the historical significance of the Hainan Island EP-3 incident. (102.9)

01 April 2001

Chinese J-811 interceptor collided with an EP-3, which was forced down - Emergency destruct occurred on EP-3.

EP-3 crew was detained for 10 days - Chinese had free reign of the plane.

The EP-3 was operating about 70 miles (110 km) away from the PRC-controlled island of Hainan when it was intercepted by two J-8 fighters. A collision between the EP-3 and one of the J-8s caused the death of a PRC pilot, while the EP-3 was forced to make an emergency landing on Hainan. The 24 crew members were detained.

(ref: wikipedia)

Describe the historical significance of the Landing of Inchon. (102.9)

General MacArthur was the driving force behind the operation, overcoming the strong misgivings of more cautious generals to a risky assault over extremely unfavorable terrain.

The Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations (UN).

The battle began on September 15, 1950, and ended around September 17. Through a surprise amphibious assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were desperately defending, the largely undefended city of Incheon was secured after being bombed by UN forces. Despite heavier UN losses, the battle ended a string of victories by the invading North Korean People's Army (NKPA). The subsequent UN recapture of nearby Seoul partially severed NKPA's supply lines in South Korea.

(ref: history.navy.mil, wikipedia)

Describe the historical significance of the D-Day Landing. (102.9)

6 June 1944

- 2 years of planning
- allied ships and landing craft had to navigate minefields, tides, weather, and other obstacles.
- 1200 Navy ships and 4100 landing craft.

(ref: history.navy.mil, wikipedia)

Describe the historical significance of the capture of the USS Pueblo. (102.9)

- Captured by North Korea in 1968
- Lack of communication w/higher commands
- Not informed of North Korean hostilities
- Emergency destruct occurred.

The USS PUEBLO was captured by the North Koreans in 1968. It was the first U.S. Navy ship to be hi-jacked on the high seas by a foreign military force in over 150 years. To date, the capture has resulted in no reprisals against the North Koreans; no military action was taken at the time, or at any later date. This lack of military response guarantees the Pueblo's place in history as a watershed event in our national conscience.

(ref: usspueblo.org)

Describe the historical significance of the USS Liberty. (102.9)

- Attacked by Israelis in 1967 in the Mediterranean Sea... Israelis claim they mistook it for an enemy ship.

"During the "Six-Day War" between Israel and several Arab nations, she was sent to collect electronic intelligence in the eastern Mediterranean. On the afternoon of 8 June 1967, while in international waters off the Sinai Peninsula, Liberty, though clearly marked as a U.S. Navy ship, was struck by Israeli aircraft. After suffering damage and many personnel casualties from gunfire, rockets and bombs, she was further attacked by three Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats. One torpedo hit her on the starboard side, forward of the superstructure, opening a large hole in her hull. In all, thirty-four men were killed in the attacks and nearly 170 wounded. Israel subsequently apologized for the incident, explaining that its air and naval forces had mistaken the Liberty for a much smaller Egyptian Navy ship. Though severely damaged, Liberty's crew kept her afloat, and she was able to leave the area under her own power. She was escorted to Malta by units of the U.S. Sixth Fleet and was there given interim repairs. "

(ref: history.navy.mil)

Describe the historical significance of the Battle of Midway. (102.9)

Battle of Midway, 4-7 June 1942

Japan intended a surprise attack on the U.S. Navy, which was thwarted by superior American communications intelligence.

The Battle of Midway, fought over and near the tiny U.S. mid-Pacific base at Midway atoll, represents the strategic high water mark of Japan's Pacific Ocean war. Prior to this action, Japan possessed general naval superiority over the United States and could usually choose where and when to attack. After Midway, the two opposing fleets were essentially equals, and the United States soon took the offensive.

Battle cost Japan four irreplaceable fleet carriers, while only one of the three U.S. carriers present was lost.

(ref: history.navy.mil)

Describe the historical significance of The Purple Code. (102.9)

- Japanese cipher used by the Japanese Foreign Office - they thought it was secure.
- Named for the color binder the US crypanalyst kept the Japanese Foreign Office decrypts in.
- Germany-Tokyo comms

(ref: nsa.gov)

Describe the historical significance of On-the-Roof-Gang. (102.9)

Named for its training location: classes were held in a wood structure set atop the Navy Headquarters Building in Washington DC.

- 176 Navy and Marine radio operators were trained.
- Foundation of the CT community.

(ref: nsa.gov)

Describe the historical significance of the attack on the USS STARK. (102.9)

17 May, 1987
Attacked by Iraqi Mirage F1 fighter while outside Iraqi and Iranian declared warzones (STARK was in international waters)
- F1 fighter fired 2 Exocet missiles
There was no indication of attack - Early Warning failed
US failed to detect attack. STARK never fired a weapon or deployed a countermeasure. The USS COONTZ crew had warning and were prepared. STARKS crew assumed fighter was benign and by the time they decided they might need to take precautions it was too late... and that was only because of the messages they received from COONTZ indicating warning.

37 Sailors died.

(ref: jag.navy.mil, history.navy.mil)

Describe the historical significance of the Navajo Code Talkers. (102.9)

The Japanese, who were skilled code breakers, remained baffled by the Navajo language... It was never broken.

The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently.
Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because Navajo is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols, and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest.
In May 1942, the first 29 Navajo recruits attended boot camp. Then, at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, California, this first group created the Navajo code. They developed a dictionary and numerous words for military terms. The dictionary and all code words had to be memorized during training.

(ref: history.navy.mil)

Describe the historical significance of the EC-121 shoot down. (102.9)

15 April 1969

The EC-121 was attacked without warning by North Korean MiG while flying its last mission with a double crew (31 Sailors). Everyone on board died.

- Prompted the US Navy to adopt new procedures to provide reconnaissance aircraft with a higher degree of protection. EC-121 would be retired and replaced by the EP-3.

(ref: nsa.gov, wikipedia)

State the qualities that characterize the Navy/Marine Corps team as instruments to support national policies. (102.10)

1. Readiness
2. Flexibility
3. Self-sustainability
4. Mobility

1. Readiness- to be ready to operate; trained and organized to function as a cohesive force, respond decisively and without the limitations of lengthy transit times.
2. Flexibility to be able to shift focus, reconfigure, and realign forces to handle a variety of contingencies.
3. Self-sustainability- ability to resupply, support and repair facilities at sea... on-station replacement of personnel and ships.
4. Mobility- enables naval forces to respond to indications of pending crises by relocating rapidly from one theater to another.Mobility is a key to decisive naval operations. The ability to
maneuver ships into position to strike vulnerable targets, or to threaten amphibious assault at multiple locations along an extended coastline, is a significant tactical and operational advantage.

(ref: NDP1, ch1)

State the 3 levels of war. (102.11)

1. Tactical - involves individual engagements
2. Operational- supports Theater
3. Strategic- supports National goals

(ref: NDP1, ch2)

Discuss the National Security Act of 1947. (102.12)

The act:

* Established the National Security Council (NSC)
* Created the CIA and established its roles
* Merged the War and Navy departments into the National Military Establishment (NME) headed by the secretary of defense, and
* Recognized the US Air Force as an independent service from the Army.

(ref: cia.gov)

State when and why the current Navy Core Values were developed? (102.13)

Adopted by CNO Admiral Kelso in 1992... a product of the Core Values Initiative (CVI) established by the Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET).

(ref: brief slides. BJM)

Discuss when and why the Sailor's Creed was developed. (102.14)

The"Sailors Creed" was written by a "Blue Ribbon Recruit Training Panel" in 1993 at the direction of Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Frank Kelso.
* All personnel of Naval Service are SAILORS FIRST and in addition, they are officers, chiefs, petty officers - aviators, Seabees, surface warriors and submariners.

(ref: history.navy.mil)

State the Sailor's Creed.

I am a United States Sailor.

I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States of America and I will obey the orders of those appointed over me.

I represent the fighting spirit of the Navy and all who have gone before me to defend freedom and democracy around the world.

I proudly serve my country's Navy combat team with Honor, Courage and Commitment.

I am committed to excellence and the fair treatment of all.

(ref: navy.mil)

State RADM Grace Hopper's contributions to the U.S. Navy. (102.15)

RADM Hopper joined the USN in 1943, retired in 1966, recalled and then retired again in 1986. She died in 1992.

She was many things, to include a computer programmer, pioneer; created COBAL, coined the term computer bug... has "Amazing Grace" DDG-70 USS HOPPER named after her.

(ref: gracehopper.org)

State the name of the first computer and where it was located. (102.16)

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) the world's first operational, general purpose, electronic digital computer, developed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania.

(ref: ftp.arl.mil)

Discuss ARPANET and when it was developed. (102.17)

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) of the U.S. DoD.

Dr. J.C.R. Licklider was chosen to head this effort...precursor to modern internet.

ARPANET connected UCLA to the Stanford Research Institute, UC Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah; there were three things that users could do: log into a remote computer, print to a remote printer, and transfer files between computers.

(ref: isoc.org)

Explain the impact of the John Walker espionage case. (102.18)

A retired warrant officer, John walker spied for the Russians from 1968-1985; allowed the Soviet Union to make SIGNIFICANT gains in naval warfare.

His arrest was a catalyst for a huge investigation within the Intel Community that uncovered other spies as well.

A later result was the creation of the Director of Counterintelligence (CI) on the National Security Council (NSC).

(ref: usni.org)

State the oldest intelligence organization in the U.S. Navy. (102.19)

The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882.

ONI was established to "seek out and report" on the advancements in other nations' navies. Its headquarters are at the National Maritime Intelligence Center in Suitland, Maryland.

ONI is the oldest member of the United States Intelligence Community.

(ref: history.navy.mil)

Explain when the ONI was established and by whom it was founded. (102.20)

The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882.

ONI was founded by the Secretary of the Navy, William H. Hunt with General Order 292, dated March 23, 1882.

(ref: history.navy.mil)

State the first Chief Intelligence Officer/Director of Naval Intelligence (CIO/DNI). (102.21)

Theodorus Bailey Myers Mason ...

was the founder and first head of the USA Office of Naval Intelligence, with the post of Chief Intelligence Officer (prior to it being redesignated as Director of Naval Intelligence in 1911).

(ref: history.navy.mil, wikipedia.org)

Name the two departments that were combined to form the ONI. (102.22)

The Department Library was combined with the "Office of Intelligence" .

(ref: navycthistory.com, history.navy.mil)

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