Dual Processing, Sleep, and Dreams

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The simultaneous processing of information on separate conscious and unconscious tracks is known as _____ processing.

dual

Our bodies synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of day and night through the _____ rhythm.

circadian

One's awareness of oneself and one's environment is referred to as _____.

consciousness

The _____ is a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a 24-hour schedule.

circadian rhythm

One's awareness of oneself and one's environment is referred to as:

consciousness.

Chronic sleep deprivation is most likely to contribute to:

suppression of the immune system.

While intently watching a live basketball game, Josie did not realize that a bird had landed on the empty seat next to her. Her not noticing the bird can be explained by:

inattentional blindness.

During a normal night, about half of one's sleep time is spent in NREM-_____ sleep.

2

Hypnosis, daydreaming, and meditation are examples of _____ states of consciousness.

altered

The recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur is known as _____ sleep.

REM

Selective attention is BEST illustrated by:

change blindness.

After turning out the light for the night, you lie down on your bed and close your eyes. Gradually, your muscles relax and drowsiness occurs. This drowsy yet wakeful state is associated with _____ brain waves.

alpha

The simultaneous processing of information on separate conscious and unconscious tracks is known as:

dual processing.

As it grows dark, the human body increases its production of _____, which affects sleep patterns.

melatonin

While you are reading your text, you are aware of your thoughts, sensations, memories, and physical location. Collectively, this awareness is referred to as _____.

consciousness

Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with _____ sleep.

NREM-3

Your introductory psychology professor explains that his current research involves studying changes in brain activity in the visual areas of the brain when one is shown pictures of people making a variety of facial expressions. You conclude that your professor's research is an example of _____.

cognitive neuroscience

When light dims, the human body increases its production of _____, the hormone associated with sleep.

melatonin

Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also conversing on a cell phone. This illustrates the impact of:

selective attention.

According to his wife, Chuck has always been a chronic snorer. For the last three months, he has been waking up in the middle of the night gasping for air. He most likely suffers from _____.

sleep apnea

At a faculty party, Dr. Washington is attentively listening to Dr. Martinez talk about her latest research on facial recognition. Dr. Washington suddenly becomes aware of someone else mentioning his name on the other side of the room. This phenomenon is known as:

the cocktail party effect.

The sleep disorder _____ is most strongly associated with obesity.

sleep apnea

Disagreement exists within the field of _____ as to whether conscious experiences are based in specific areas of the brain or the result of the brain working as a whole.

cognitive neuroscience

Staying up especially late on weekends is likely to have an influence on one's _____.

circadian rhythm

_____ processing is the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.

Dual

Which sleep disorder is most likely to be accompanied by sleepwalking and sleeptalking?

night terrors

Change blindness is an example of _____.

selective attention

Sleepwalking is most likely to occur during NREM-_____ sleep.

3

Jane babysits 1-year-old Tommy most Saturday nights. The last couple of Saturdays, after Tommy has been sleeping for over a couple of hours, he sits up crying very loudly and breathing very heavily. Jane rushes into the bedroom and pats Tommy on the back; soon he is back to sleep. When she reports this to his parents they are likely to tell Jane that Tommy is experiencing _____.

night terrors

_____ processing of information is most closely associated with parallel processing.

Unconscious

Nina goes to bed at her regular time, and as she begins to drift slowly off to sleep, she suddenly jerks because she feels as if she is falling down the stairs. This is best explained by a(n) _____ sensation.

hypnagogic

Unconscious processing of information is most closely associated with _____ processing.

parallel

Dr. Garcia is researching the function of dreams in memory retention. He believes that dreams help people to sort out the day's events and consolidate their memories. Dr. Garcia is probably a proponent of the _____ theory of dreams.

information-processing

Consciousness is one's awareness of oneself and one's _____.

environment

Nancy is doing a study comparing the sleep patterns of different animals. She has studied the material but can't seem to retain what she has read. Why might she be better off discontinuing her study and getting some rest?

Sleep helps restore our fading memories of the day.

_____ is one's awareness of oneself and one's environment.

Consciousness

Driving home from work, Laura stopped at an intersection. She looked to her left and right for oncoming cars and then made a left turn, pulling out right in front of a bicycle. Even though she looked in that direction, she failed to see the bicycle, likely because she was looking only for cars. Her inability to see the bicycle is a phenomenon known as:

inattentional blindness.

As Veronica scans the huge crowd of happy concert-goers, she clearly sees a man who is sobbing. She notices him because of the _____ phenomenon.

pop-out

A car driver's ability to navigate a familiar route while carrying on an animated conversation with passengers illustrates the importance of _____.

dual processing

Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness that is physiologically induced?

sensory deprivation

You enter the psychology lab at which you signed up to participate in an experiment. A lab assistant, standing on the other side of a counter, explains the informed consent and asks you to sign the form. As the lab assistant reaches for the form he drops it behind the counter. The lab assistant drops down behind the counter to pick up the form and unbeknownst to you another person stands up holding the form. After you sign the form you are asked if you noticed the change. You did not. This phenomenon is known specifically as _____.

change blindness

To ensure she gets the most she can out of her cruise vacation, Natasha stays up late every night while on the cruise. She tries to sleep during the day, but her cabin is too noisy, and she suffers from REM sleep deprivation. Natasha can expect to experience REM _____ during her first several nights back home.

rebound

The recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams occur is called:

REM sleep.

Which subfield of study is interdisciplinary in nature?

cognitive neuroscience

One in ten adults complains of _____, a sleep disorder characterized by nightly problems falling or staying asleep.

insomnia

Hypnosis, daydreaming, and meditation are examples of:

altered states of consciousness.

The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks is known as _____.

dual processing

The large, slow brain waves associated with NREM-3 sleep are called _____ waves.

delta

Change blindness, inattentional blindness, and the cocktail party effect all illustrate _____.

selective attention

People who claim to have been abducted by space aliens shortly after going to bed commonly recall being floated off their beds. It is most likely that they have incorporated _____ into their memories.

hypnagogic sensations

Sleep spindles occur in NREM-_____ sleep.

2

Which state of consciousness occurs spontaneously?

daydreaming

The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks is known as _____ processing.

dual

Studies of young people ages 12-18 demonstrate that chronic sleep deprivation increases the risk of developing:

depression.

The sleep disorder called _____ is characterized by high arousal and a feeling of great fear. This disorder occurs during the NREM-3 stage of sleep within two to three hours of falling asleep.

night terrors

The 90-minute sleep cycle provides an example of a(n) _____.

biological rhythm

Bright light affects one's feeling of sleepiness by decreasing the production of _____.

melatonin

People with the sleep disorder _____ experience periodic, overwhelming sleepiness without warning.

narcolepsy

The sleep disorder called _____ is likely to be accompanied by sleepwalking and sleeptalking.

night terrors

People with this sleep disorder experience periodic, overwhelming sleepiness without warning.

narcolepsy

The circadian rhythm is:

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on approximately a 24-hour schedule.

The large, slow brain waves associated with NREM-3 sleep are called:

delta waves.

This sleep disorder is characterized by high arousal and a feeling of great fear.

night terrors

Bright light affects one's feeling of sleepiness by decreasing the production of:

melatonin.

During a normal night, about half of one's sleep time is spent in:

NREM-2 sleep.

Which of the following statements is TRUE about sleep?

People dream every night.

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