Gender Development

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In psychology, _____ is defined as the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.

gender

A single gene on the _____ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.

Y

A _____ is a set of expected behaviors for males and females.

gender role

The average woman is different from the average man in which of the following ways?

She is 5 inches shorter.

A single gene on the Y chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the _____.

testes

_____ theory assumes that children conceptualize what it means to be male or female and then they adjust their behavior accordingly.

Gender schema

Among your 46 chromosomes, _____ are unisex.

forty-five (or 45)

A single _____ on the _____chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.

gene; Y

In the United States as of 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of _____.

gender roles

Arlo tells you he is certain he wants to have a career in computer science. You tell him you are not surprised, because you read in your textbook that men orient themselves more to _____ and women orient themselves more to _____.

things; people

The average woman in the United States enters puberty _____ sooner than the average man.

two years

In the United States as of 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of:

gender roles

Men report that their most intimate and nurturing friendships tend to be with _____.

women

Violet has noticed that her breasts are getting larger, and she will soon need to wear a bra. She is experiencing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.

secondary

A(n) _____ is a set of expected behaviors for males or females.

gender role

Men are 4 times more likely to suffer _____ than women.

alcoholism

A male has a(n) _____ combination in the _____.

XY; 23rd pair of chromosomes

Your neighbors have three children, and both parents work. Without fail, whenever there is a sick child in the family, the expectation is that the mother will stay home to care for the child. The mother is fulfilling a set of expectations called a gender _____.

role

Compared to women, men are more likely to:

commit suicide.

Female breasts are to secondary sex characteristics as male _____ are to primary sex characteristics.

testes

Because 14-year-old Ferris believes that crying is a feminine trait, he has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates dynamics highlighted by _____ theory.

gender schema

In his business meetings, Mark is very inclusive of his colleagues and welcomes their opinions, listening intently when they are speaking. This is behavior is somewhat unusual, because men are usually more _____ than women.

directive

A female has a(n) _____ combination in the 23rd pair of chromosomes.

XX

Six-year-old Fabian likes to fix things with his Dad around the house. He grabs his toy tools and sometimes even picks up a real screwdriver to try and help Dad fix whatever is broken. This is best explained by _____ theory.

social learning

In a study on aggression, a group of university students were given an experimental task intended to be purposely frustrating. Then, the participants were given a task that forced them to administer (fake) electric shocks to another participant. Given what is known about gender differences and aggression, it is not surprising that _____ administered more painful electric shocks.

men (or males)

Jamie is 14 and has noticed that her jeans are fitting differently; her hips are much curvier than they were a few months ago. She is noticing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.

secondary

Menarche is to a girl's sexual development as _____ is to a boy's sexual development.

spermarche

Maddy has noticed that her breasts are getting larger, and she will soon need to wear a bra. She is experiencing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.

secondary

Almost all the girls in a class are taller than the boys. Most likely the girls and boys are:

12.

Andrew is starting to notice facial hair and hair under his arms. His voice also seems to be deepening. He is experiencing changes in his _____ sex characteristics.

secondary

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called:

gender typing.

Ovaries are to _____ as menarche is to _____.

testes; spermache

Gabriel enjoys hunting, playing football, and wrestling more than the other boys, while Susan enjoys talking to her friends and taking care of her younger siblings. We can say that Gabriel is exhibiting traditionally _____ traits, while Susan is exhibiting traditionally feminine traits as they are highly gender typed.

masculine

Female _____ are to secondary sex characteristics as male testes are to primary sex characteristics.

breasts

Katie is 14 and has noticed that her jeans are fitting differently; her hips are much curvier than they were a few months ago. She is noticing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.

secondary

Our own concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our comprehension of the world are called gender _____.

schemas

You are researching play style differences between boys and girls during outdoor recess. You notice that the girls spend more time _____ while the boys spend more time participating in rough-and-tumble play.

talking

In a study on aggression, a group of university students were given an experimental task intended to be purposely frustrating. Then, the participants were given a task that forced them to administer (fake) electric shocks to another participant. Given what is known about gender differences and aggression, who do you think administered more painful electric shocks?

Men administered more painful electric shocks.

_____ assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others, and through the rewards and punishments they receive for their imitation.

Social learning theory

Jenny has agreed to babysit for a family that has a 6-year-old boy and an 8-year-old girl. What can Jenny possibly anticipate with respect to the behavioral differences between the children?

The girl will spend more time talking to Jenny, while the boy will spend more time in physically active play.

Donna's parents divorced when she was a little girl. Her mother works two jobs and they eat a lot of fast food. It is likely that Donna will:

mature at an earlier age.

_____ is to a girl's sexual development as spermarche is to a boy's sexual development.

Menarche

_____ is to a girl's sexual development as _____ is to a boy's sexual development.

Menarche; spermarche

When 6-year-old Sara imitates her mother by carefully wrapping and setting out presents for the holiday celebration, she is praised and given holiday cookies. Sara's learning of gender-linked behaviors is best explained by:

social learning theory.

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called gender _____.

typing

You have a limited budget for your research, so you need to focus on a small sample of individuals who are most likely to develop alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder. Given what is known about gender differences, which of the following groups would you choose?

a group of adult males

You have a limited budget for your research, so you need to focus on a small sample of individuals who are most likely to develop alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder. Given what is known about gender differences, you should focus on a sample made up of a group of _____.

adult males

Our own concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our comprehension of the world are called gender:

schemas.

Your neighbors have three children, and both parents work. Without fail, whenever there is a sick child in the family, the expectation is that the mother will stay home to care for the child. The mother is fulfilling a set of expectations called a:

gender role.

Female breasts are to _____ as male testes are to _____.

secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics

Six-year-old Joe likes to fix things with his dad around the house. He grabs his toy tools and sometimes even picks up a real screwdriver to try and help dad fix whatever is broken. This is best explained by:

social learning theory.

Shara is genetically female, but was exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development. As a young girl, she was often described as a "tomboy." She would dress and play in a way more typical of boys than girls. What is the MOST LIKELY reason for this?

Her exposure to excess testosterone caused her to act more like a boy.

Your married friend Gwen is quite upset. She asks you why she, rather than her husband, is always the one who cooks, cleans, and takes care of the children the majority of the time. You tell her all of the following EXCEPT that:

employed women have more time to devote to taking care of the children.

In her business meetings, Padma is very vocal with her opinions and even slightly intimidating to her colleagues. This is behavior is somewhat unusual, because women tend to be more _____ than men.

democratic

Men are about _____ times more likely to suffer alcoholism than women.

four

Because 14-year-old George believes that crying is a feminine trait, he has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates dynamics highlighted by:

gender schema theory.

Vera tells you she is certain she wants to have a career in nursing. You tell her you are not surprised, because you read in your textbook that men orient themselves more to things and women orient themselves more to _____.

people

Compared to women, men are more likely to successfully _____.

commit suicide

Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their:

social relationships.

Among your _____ chromosomes, _____ are unisex.

46; 45

As adults, women take more pleasure in talking face to face, and they are more likely to use conversation to explore relationships. This is because women are typically more _____ than men.

interdependent

When 6-year-old Claire imitates her mother, carefully wrapping and setting out presents for the holiday celebration, she is praised and given holiday cookies. Claire's learning of gender-linked behaviors is best explained by _____ theory.

social learning

In psychology, _____ refers to the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.

gender

Compared to women, men tend to be LESS vulnerable to depression and _____.

anxiety

In everyday interactions, men are more likely to state their opinions, and women to offer support. However, women tend to become more assertive, and men more empathetic, when they reach _____.

middle age

Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their _____.

social relationships

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called _____ typing.

gender

Men report that their most intimate and nurturing friendships tend to be:

with women.

_____ theory assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others and through the rewards and punishments they receive for their imitation.

Social learning

The average woman enters puberty about two years _____ than the average man.

sooner

_____ assumes that children conceptualize what it means to be male or female and then they adjust their behavior accordingly.

Gender schema theory

A female has a(n) _____ combination in the _____.

XX; 23rd pair of chromosomes

A male has a(n) XY combination in the _____ pair of chromosomes.

23

Compared to men, women are at about _____ risk for eating disorders.

10 times greater

Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of _____ on their social relationships.

personal identity

Compared to men, women are about 10 times _____ likely to have for eating disorders.

more

Compared to women, men tend to be LESS vulnerable to _____ and anxiety.

depression

In everyday interactions, men are more likely to state their opinions, and women to offer support. However, women tend to become more assertive, and men more empathetic:

in middle age.

Compared to women, men tend to be LESS vulnerable to:

depression and anxiety.

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