# ICP FINAL EXAM 2013-2014

### 66 terms by peoneill Teacher

#### Study  only

Flashcards Flashcards

Scatter Scatter

Scatter Scatter

## Create a new folder

### wave

a disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another

### amplitude

for transverse waves: the distance between the resting point (or equilibrium) to the crest or trough

### frequency

the number of waves passing a fixed point in a certain amount of time; it is based partly on wavelength (longer wavelengths take a longer time to pass) and partly on the speed the wave travels

### medium

any substance that a wave moves through

### mechanical wave

waves that transfer energy through matter

### wavelength

the distance from one wave crest to the very next crest. (This may also be measured from trough to trough.)

### reflection

the bouncing back of a wave as it strikes a barrier

### refraction

the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an angle other than 90 degrees

### diffraction

the spreading out of waves through an opening or around the edges of an obstacle

### interference

the meeting and combining of waves

### destructive interference

when waves cancel each other out

### constructive interference

when waves combine to a larger amplitude

### 2 relationships for waves

1) speed and frequency = directly proportional
(as speed goes up, frequency goes up)
2) wavelength and frequency = inversely proportional
(as wavelength gets longer, frequency goes down)

### refraction examples

a straw looks "broken" when you look at it in a glass of water (because the light bends when it enters the water)

### diffraction examples

light will bend around a lampshade; sounds can be heard even if you are hiding behind something

### EM Wave

electromagnetic wave; moves energy through space (sometimes empty space, sometimes through a medium - DOES NOT REQUIRE A MEDIUM)

### Examples of mechanical waves

Sound, ocean waves, earthquakes

### Temperature

the AVERAGE kinetic energy of an object's particles due to non-directional motion at the atomic level

### Heat flow

always goes from hot to cold

### Conduction

the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching

### Convection

the transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas

the transfer of heat by rays or waves

### Conduction (examples)

stovetop, seat-warmer

### Convection (examples)

oven, blood (circulating), furnace

sun, heat lamp

32°F

0°C

273K

212°F

100°C

373K

### Absolute Zero

the temperature at which particles stop moving entirely (impossible to actually reach)

### Heat

the TOTAL kinetic energy of an object's particles due to non-directional motion at the atomic level

C + 273 = K

### converting Fahrenheit to Kelvin

must convert to Celsius first, THEN to Kelvin

Kelvins

### Why do we have the Kelvin scale?

1) Absolute zero is zero
2) There are no negative temperatures

### specific heat

The price you pay (in energy) to change the temperature of something.

### high specific heat

difficult to change the temperature

water

### low specific heat

easy to change the temperature

metal

### SI unit for speed/velocity

m/s (meters per second)

### SI unit for acceleration

m/s² (meters per second squared)

### Positive accelerations

speed is increasing

### Negative accelerations

speed is decreasing

### Acceleration is zero

the object is not chaning speed (is not moving or is moving with constant speed)

### Positive velocity

object moving forward

### Negative velocity

object moving backwards

### Velocity is zero

object is not moving

### Velocity

speed and direction

slope = velocity

A straight line

### (distance vs. time) constant speed forward

straight line, positive slope

### (distance vs. time) standing still

straight line, slope = 0 (line is flat)

### (distance vs. time) speeding up (accelerating)

smiling curve (slope gets steeper and steeper)

### (distance vs. time) slowing down

frowning curve (slope gets flatter and flatter)

### friction

the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching

### freefall

when the only force acting on an object is gravity

### equal and opposite forces

whenever a force is exerted, there is another force that is equal in size and opposite in direction

### inertia

objects in motion tend to stay in the same motion; objects at rest tend to stay at rest

mass x speed

### zero (momentum)

an object at rest has ______ momentum

N (Newton)

Example: