Cellular Reproduction Vocab (Chapters 9 and 10)

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This set deals with vocab words from Chapter 9 (The Cell Cycle and Cellular Respiration) and Chapter 10 (Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction)

anaphase

mitotic phase during which daughter chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle

asexual reproduction

reproduction that requires only one parent and does not involve gametes

aster

short, radiating fibers produced by the centrosomes in animal cells

cell cycle

an orderly set of stages and substages between one division and the next

cell plate

structure across a dividing plant cell that signals the location of new plasma membranes and cell walls

centriole

cell organelle, existing in pairs, that occurs in the centrosome and may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during animal cell division

centromere

constriction where sister chromatids of a chromosome are help together

centrosome

microtubule organizing center; organizes the miotic spindle, contains two barrel-shaped centrioles

chromatid

each double helix of DNA

chromatin

network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated proteins observed within a nucleus that is not dividing

cyclin

protein that cycles in quantity as the cell cycle progresses; combines with and activates the kinases that function to promote the events of the cycle

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis

diploid (2n)

cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are present

growth factor

external signals received at the plasma membrane

haploid (n)

cell in which only one of each type of chromosome is present

interphase

stages of the cell cycle during which growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing

metaphase

mitotic phase during which chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate

metaphase plate

a disk formed during metaphase in which all of a cell's chromosomes lie in a single plane at right angles to the spindle fibers

mitosis

process in which a parent nucleus produces two daughter nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus

nucleoid

region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelope

prometaphase

phase of mitosis which generally begins with the disintegration of the nuclear membrane

prophase

mitotic phase during which chromatin condenses so that chromosomes appear; chromosomes are scattered

reproductive cloning

genetically identical to the original individual

signal

a molecule that stimulates or inhibits a metabolic event

sister chromatid

one of two genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication and are attached to each other at the centromere

somatic cell

body cell

spindle

microtubule structure that brings about chromosomal movement during nuclear division

telomere

tip of the end of a chromosome that shortens with each cell division and may thereby regulate the number of times a cell can divide

allele

alternative form of a gene-occurs at the same locus on homologous chromosomes

crossing-over

some parts of nonsister chromatids switch during meiosis

fertilization

fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote that develops into a new individual

gamete

sex cell

gametogenesis

development of the male and female sex gametes

gametophyte

haploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote

genetic recombination

process in which new genetic information is incorporated into a chromosome or DNA fragment

homologous chromosome

member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division

homologue

member of a homologous pair of chromosomes

independent assortment

alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis so that the gametes contain all possible combinations of alleles

interkinesis

period of time between meiosis I and meiosis II during which no DNA replication takes place

kinetochore

disk-shaped strucutre within the centromere of a chromosome to which spindle microtubules become attached during mitosis and meiosis

life cycle

recurring pattern of genetically programmed events by which individuals grown, develop, maintain themselves, and reproduce

oogenesis

meiosis in female

sexual reproduction

reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization; produces offspring with chromosomes inherited from each parent with a unique combination of genes

spermatogenesis

meiosis in male

sporophyte

diploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation

synapsis

pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I

zygote

diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes; the product of fertilization

G1 phase

recovery from previous division, cell doubles its organelles, accumulates raw materials for DNA synthesis

S phase

DNA replication (synthesis), chromosomes enter with 1 chromatid each, chromosomes leave with 2 identical chromatids each

G2 phase

between DNA replication and onset of mitosis; cell synthesizes proteins necessary for division

binary fission

splitting in between the two replicate chromosomes; produces two daughter cells identical to original cells-asexual reproduction

meiosis

special type of cell division used only for sexual reproduction that halves the chromosome number prior to fertilization

tetrad

4 pieces to the homologous pair (each chromatid represents 1/4 of this)

gonad

organ in which meiosis occurs

ovary (follicle)

female gonad

testes (seminiferous tubules)

male gonad

ovum (egg)

female gamete

sperm

male gamete

karyotype

map all chromosomes out to see all characteristics

seperate homologous pairs

point of meiosis I

seperate sister chromatids

point of meiosis II

crossing-over

exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatides during meiosis I

telophase

mitotic phase during which daughter cells are located at each pole

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