## 144 terms

### With reference to the foot, where should the IR be centered for AP & AP axial projections?

Base of the third metatarsal

### How should the central ray be directed to best demonstrate tarsometatarsal joints with a dorsoplantar projection?

10 Degrees posteriorly (towards the heel)

### The most superior portion of the tibia (tibial eminence) projects upwards from the plateau into the:

intercondylar space

### According to Merrill's, which procedure should the radiographer perform if the lower leg is too long to demonstrate the knee and the ankle joint with the same exposure?

Perform two AP projections to ensure that the entire lower limb is demonstrated

### When performing an AP projection of the knee, the CR should be directed to a point _____ below the ______ of the patella.

1/2 inch, apex

### When positioning the body for an AP projection of the femur, how many degrees should the lower limb be rotated?

10 - 15 Degree

### The head of the femur articulates with a cup shaped socket on the lateral surface of the pelvis called the:

Acetabulum

### The junction of the two innominate bones at the anteroinerfior margin is termed the:

Symphysis pubis

### Which of the following pelvic structures is not used as a positioning palpaation point?

Ishial spine

### Which projections of the hip or pelvis should not be performed if the patient is suspected to have a intertrochanteric fracture?

Lauenstein method

### Where on the midline of the patient should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method)?

1 inch above the symphysis pubis

### For which projection of an individual hip should the unaffected hip be flexed & the thigh raised out of the way of the CR?

Danelius - Miller

### Which of the following methods is useful in diagnoising fractures of the acetabulum?

Judet method

### The _____ serves as a base for the trunk & girdle for the attatchment of the lower limbs.

Pelvis

### Which of the following pelvic structures is not used as a positioning palpation point?

Ischial Spine

### What is the name of the border that extends on the hip bone from the posterior superior iliac spine to ASIS?

Iliac crest

### What is the name of the process that seperates the greater sciatic notch from the lesser sciatic notch on the hip bone?

Ischial Spine

### Which parts of the hip bones supports the weight of the body when a person is in the sitting position?

Ischial Tuberosities

### Where should the IR be centered for the AP projection of the pelvis?

Midway between the ASIS and the pubic symphysis

### Where on the midline of the patient should the central ray enter for the AP projection of the pelvis?

2 inches above the pubic symphysis

### Which positioning maneuver should be performed to place the femoral necks parallel with the IR for an AP projection of the pelvis?

Rotate the lower limbs medially 15 to 20 degrees

### How should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method) to demonstrate bilateral hips?

Perpendicularly

### For which projection of the lower limbs or pelvis should the hips be flexed and the femurs be abducted from the midline of the patient?

AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method) for femoral necks

### Where on the midline of the patient should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method)?

1 inch above the symphysis pubis

### Which projection of the hip or pelvis should not be performed if the patient is suspected to have an intertrochanteric fracture?

Lateral projection of hips (Lauenstein method)

### For the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves), what is the purpose of abducting the femurs the required number of degrees?

To position the femoral necks parallel with the IR

### Which structure should be centered to the midline of the table when the AP oblique projection (cleaves) is adapted to demonstrate only one hip?

ASIS

### For which projection of an individual hip should the unaffected hip be flexed and the thigh be raised out of the way of the central ray?

Axiolateral projection (Danelius-Miller mod. of the Lorenz method)

### For which projection of the hip should the central ray be directed horizontally into the medial aspect of the affected thigh?

Axiolateral projection (Danelius-Miller mod. Lorenz method)

### Which of the following will best demonstrate suspected fractures of the acetabulum?

AP oblique projection (Judet method)

### Which of the following will best demonstrate the posterior rim of the left acetabulum?

45 Degrees RPO

### What specific portion of the acetabulum is demonstrated by the AP oblique projection, external oblique projection (judet method)?

Anterior rim

### Which of the following would best demonstrate the pubic and ischial rami without foreshortening?

AP axial "outlet" projection (taylor method)

### What is the proper central ray orientation for the AP axial projection (taylor method) for female patients?

30 to 45 degrees cephalad

### How many and what kind of bones comprise the foot and ankle?

14 phalanges, 5 metatarsals, 7 tarsals

### Where in the foot is the tuberosity that is easily palpable?

Proximal portion of the fifth metatarsal

### Which tarsal bone is located on he lateral side of the foot between the calcaneus and the fourth and fifth metatarsals?

Cuboid

### Which tarsal bone is located on the medial side of the foot between the talus and the three cuneiforms?

Navicular

### Which term refers to the prominent process on the anterior surface of the proximal tibia that is just inferior to the condyles?

Tuberosity

### Which joint is formed by the articulation of the head of the fibula with the lateral condyle of the tibia?

Proximal tibiofibular

### When an angled central ray is used to perform the AP projection of the toes, how many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed?

15 degrees cehalad (towards heel)

### How many degrees and in what direction should the foot be rotated for the AP oblique projection to demonstrate all five toes?

Perp. to the 3rd metatarsophalangeal joint

### How and toward what centering point should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection to best demonstrate the great toe?

30 to 45 degrees medially

### How many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for the AP axial projection of the foot?

10 degrees cephalad (towards heels)

### Which projection of the foot best demonstrates the cuboid and its articulations?

AP oblique (medial rotation)

### How many degrees and in what direction should the foot rotated for the AP oblique projection of the foot?

30 degrees medially

### How many degrees and in what direction should the foot be rotated for the AP oblique projection to best demonstrate the cuboid and its articulations?

30 degrees medially

### How and toward what centering point should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection of the foot?

Perpendicular to the base of the 3rd metatarsal

### Where should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection of the foot?

To the base of the 3rd metatarsal

### Regardless of the condition of the patient, which positioning maneuver should be performed to position the foot for the lateral projection?

Ensure that the plantar surface is perpendicular to the IR

### How should the central ray be directed to best demonstrate the tarsometatarsal joint spaces of the midfoot for the AP projection of the foot?

10 degrees posteriorly (toward the heel)

### Which projection of the foot best demonstrates the sinus tarsi?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

### Which projection of the foot best demonstrates most of the tarsals with the least amount of superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

### Which projection of the foot best demonstrates the bases of the fourth and fifth metatarsals free from superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

### Which projection of the foot should demonstrate metatarsals nearly superimposed on each other?

Lateral projection

### Which two projections comprise the typical series that best demonstrates the calcaneus?

Axial (plantodorsal) and lateral projections

### How many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for the axial (plantodorsal) projection of the calcaneus?

40 degrees cephalad

### At which level on the plantar surface should the central ray enter the foot for the axial (plantodorsal) projection of the calcaneus?

Base of the third metatarsal

### Where should the central ray be directed for the lateral projection of the calcaneus?

Toward the midpoint of the calcaneus

### Where should the central ray enter for the lateral projection of the ankle?

At the medial malleolus

### How many degrees and in which direction should the foot and leg be rotated to best deomonstrate the mortise joint for the AP oblique projection of the ankle?

15 to 20 degrees medially

### Which projection of the ankle best demonstrates the talofibular joint space free from bony superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

### Which articulation should be seen in profile with the AP oblique projection (medial rotation) of the ankle?

Talofibular

### With reference to the plane of the IR, how should the malleoli be positioned for the AP oblique projection of the ankle to best demonstrate the mortise joint spaces open?

Parallel

### Which projection of the ankle should be performed to best demonstrate a ligamentous tear?

AP projection with inversion

### Which projection of the knee best demonstrates the femorotibial joint space open if the patient measures more than 24 cm between the ASIS and the table top?

AP projection with central ray angled 3 to 5 degrees cephalad

### For the lateral projection of the knee, hoow many degrees should the knee be flexed?

20 to 30 degrees

### With reference to the knee, where should the IR be centered for the PA axial projection (holmblad method) of the knee?

To the apex of the patella

### How many degrees of angulation should be formed between the femur and the radiologic table for the PA axial projection (holmblad method) of the knee?

70 degrees

### Which of the following projections of the knee best demonstrates the intercondylar fossa?

PA axial projection (holmblad method)

### How many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for the lateral projection of the knee?

5 to 7 degrees cephalad

### Which structure of the knee is best demonstrated with the PA axial projection (holmblad method)?

Femoral intercondylar fossa

### Which projection of the knee best demonstrates the proximal tibiofibular articulation without bony superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

### Which projection of the knee best demonstrates the femoropatellar space open?

Lateral projection

### Which of the following evaluation criteria indicated that the knee is properly positioned for a lateral projection?

The femoral condyles are superimposed

### What should be done to prevent the knee joint space from being obscured by magnification shadow of the medial femoral condyle when the lateral projection of the knee is performed?

Direct the central ray 5 to 7 degrees cephalad

### Which of the following evaluation criteria indicates that the knee is properly positioned for the AP projection?

The femorotibial joint space is open

### Where should the patella be demonstrated on the radiograph of the AP oblique projection of the knee with medial rotation?

Over the medial condyle of the femur

### Where should the patella be demonstrated on the radiograph of the AP oblique projection of the knee with lateral rotation?

Over the lateral femoral condyle

### For the lateral projection of the patella, which positioning maneuver reduces the femoropatellar joint space?

Flexing the knee more than 10 degrees

### Which area of the knee should the central ray enter for the PA axial projection (holmblad method)?

Posterior

### Which of the following projections of the knee best demonstrates the femoral intercondylar fossa?

PA axial projection (camp coventry method)

### Which projection of the knee should be used to demonstrate the patella completely superimposed on the femur?

AP projection

### Which projection of the knee should be used to demonstrate the patella in profile?

Lateral projection

### For a patient prone on the radiographic table with the knee centered to the midline and the knee flexed until the lower leg forms a 40 degree angle with the table, how should the central ray be directed to demonstrate the femoral intercondylar fossa?

Caudally 40 degrees

### For which projection of the knee should the patient be prone on the table, with the knee flexed until the leg forms an angle of 40 degrees with the table, and the central ray directed perpendicular to the long axis of the leg, entering the back side of the knee?

PA axial projection (Camp coventry method)

### How should the central ray be directed for the bilateral weight-bearing AP projection of the knees?

Perpendicularly

### Which projection of the knee can be accomplished with the patient upright, the affected knee flexed and its anterior surface in contact with a vertically placed IR, and the horizontally directed central ray entering the posterior aspect of the knee?

PA axial projection (Holmblad method)

### Which positioning factor determines the number of degrees the central ray should be angled for the tangental projection (settegast method) to demonstrate the patella?

Degree of knee flexion

### Which positioning maneuver should be performed to place the femoral neck in profile for the AP projection of the femur?

Rotate the lower limb medially 10 to 15 degrees

### Which positioning maneuver should be performed to prevent the femoral neck from appearing foreshortened in the AP projection of the femur?

Rotate the lower limb medially 10 to 15 degrees

### For the AP projection of the femur on typical adults, what should be done to ensure that both joints of the femur are demonstrated?

Perform a second exposure with another IR

### For which lower limb projection should the lower limb be rotated medially 10 to 15 degrees?

AP projection of the femur

### For which lower limb projection should the pelvis be rotated 10 to 15 degrees from true lateral?

Lateral projection of the femur

### For the lateral projection of the femur, how should the pelvis be positioned to demonstrate only the knee joint with the distal femoral shaft?

True lateral