Anat ch 13- The nervous system:neural tissue

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awesome.

What does the nervous system include?

all the neural tissue in the body

The two divisions of nervous system?

CNS and PNS

CNS consists of

brain and spinal cord

cns is reponsible for

integrating, processing, and coordinating sensory input and motor output

PNS includes

all neural tissue outside of CNS

PNS provides

sensory information to the CNS and carries motor commands from the cns to the peripheral tissues and systems

PNS is divided into what two divisions?

afferent-carries sensory info to CNS
efferent-carries motor commands to muscles and glands

afferent division begins at?

receptors

somatic sensory receptors

monitor skeletal muscles, joints, and the skin

visceral sensory receptors

monitor other internal tissues such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands

somatic nervous system

controls skeletal muscle contractions

autonomic nervous system

regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity

activities of the somatic nervous system may be....

voluntary and involuntary

autonomic nervous system...

involuntary, usually outside of our control

what two types of neural tissue are there?

Neurons(impulse conduction) and neuroglia(supporting cells, can divide unlike neurons, common source of tumors)

parasympathetic vs sympathetic?

para-just chillin
sympathetic-fight or flight

PNS nerves?

31 spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves

general characteristics of neuroglial cells

smaller than neurons
more numerous than neurons
most found in brain and spinal cord
source of tumors

CNS neuroglial cells

Astrocytes
Microglia
Ependyma
Oligodenrocytes

astrocytes

controlling interstitial environment
maintaining the blood-brain barrier
performing repairs in damaged neural tissue
guiding neuron development

microglia

smallest of glial cells, work as phagocytic cells in the CNS engulfing cellular debris, waste products and pathogens

ependyma

produce spinal fluid

oligodenrocytes

produces myelin and wraps axons

PNS gial cells

schwann cells(neurolemmocytes)
satellite cells

satellite cells

regulate exchange of nutrients and waste products between the neuron cell body and the extracellular fluid

schwann cells

every peripheral axon whether unmyelinated or myelinated is coverd with Schwann cells; Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.

axolemma

plasmalemma of an axon

neurilemma

thick outermost coil of myelin sheath- bulging of Scwann cell contains nucleus and cytoplasm

the two anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system?

central and peripheral nervous system

what two terms are used to refer to the supporting cells in neural tissue?

glial or neuroglial

specifically what cells help maintain the blood-brain barrier?

astrocytes help maintain the blood-brain barrier

what is the name of the membranous coating formed around axons by oligodendrocytes?

myelin is what oligodendrocytes produce

identify the cells in the peripheral nervous system that form a covering around axons

in the PNS, schwann cells form a myelin covering around axons

what does the cytoskeleton of the perikaryon contain?

neurofilaments and neurotubules

what is a bundle of neurofilaments?

neurofibrils

cytoplasm of an axon?

axoplasm

terminal bouton

synaptic knob

anaxonic neurons

small neurons; cannot distinguish axons from dendrites; only found in CNS; functions are poorly understood

bipolar neurons

One dendrite and one axon; Receive limited inputs (special sense organs), rare, axons are not myelenated

pseudounipolar neuron

located in the periphery of the pody, where it conveys sensory impulses; characterized by a single process that divides into two, and a cell body located in a sensory ganglia

multipolar neurons

have multiple dendrites and a single axon; most common type of neuron in CNS; all motor neurons that control skeletal muscles are this type

Sensory neurons

pseudounipolar neurons with their cell bodies located outside the CNS in peripheral sensory ganglia; form the afferent division of the PNS-deliver info to the CNS

Afferent Fibers

axons of sensory neurons

somatic sensory neurons

monitor effects of external environment

visceral sensory neurons

transmit info about internal conditions and the status of other organ systems

exteroreceptors

sensitive to stimuli arising outside body (touch, pressure, pain receptors)

proprioreceptors

Type of sensory receptor that monitors the body's position in space.

interoceptors

monitor digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems

efferent fibers

axons traveling away from the CNS

preganglionic fibers

axons extending from the CNS to a ganglion

postganglionic fibers

axons connecting the ganglion cells with the peripheral effectors

Wallerian Degeneration

Changes that occur in the axon distal to the site of axonal damage; the axon swells up and becomes irregular; eventually, the axon and the terminals are broken down into fragments that are phagocytosed by adjacent macrophages and Schwann cells.

excitability

ability of the plasmalemma to conduct electrical impulses

action potential

an electrical impulse developed after the threshhold level has been reached, the membrane permeability to sodium and potassium ions changes

neuroeffector junctions

site where synapses permit communication between neurons and other cells

Chemical(vescular) synapses

synapses which involved the release of a chemical neurotransmitter by the presynaptic neuron

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