Biology Review: Ch. 3,5, and 6

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Why is energy needed for the body?

to build up proteins from amino acids (for growth, repair, and development). make starch from glucose.

What is the energy currency for cells?

ATP

When ATP loses a phosphate group, it becomes:

ADP

Compare and contrast autotroph and heterotroph.

autotrophs can make their own food and heterotrophs get their food from other organisms.

What is the energy source for photosynthesis?

sunlight

What are the reactants of photosynthesis? Products?

Reactants- sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, and energy
Products- oxygen and glucose

Why do leaves appear green?

because leaves have chloroplasts which contain the pigment chlorophyll.

What organelles does photosynthesis take place in?

chloroplasts

What is the name of the two sections of a mesophyll layer?

palisade and spongy

What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

aerobic- requires oxygen. produces more, but slower.
anaerobic- does not require oxygen. produces less, but faster.

How are leaves adapted to perform photosynthesis?

- broad, flat shape: increases surface area
- thin: gases diffuse a short distance
- stomata present
- more chloroplasts present
- veins supply water

During cellular respiration, where is most of the ATP created?

electron transport chain

What organelle does the pyruvate enter during the second stage of cellular respiration?

mitochondria

Glycolysis is the _______ stage of cellular respiration. ________ being broken apart. _______ is being produced. Is it an anaerobic or aerobic process?

first. glucose. pyruvic acid. anaerobic.

What are the two types of fermentation? Equations? Aerobic or anaerobic?

1.) lactic fermentation glucose -----> lactic acid
2.) ethanol/alcohol fermentation glucose -----> ethanol + co2
This is an anaerobic process.

Why is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration usually described as a cycle?

the products for cellular respiration become the reactants for photosynthesis and vice versa.

How does water potential relate to the opening and closing of the guard cells?

when water pottassium ions leave or enter the cells and the stomata closes or opens. so a higher water potential would most likely cause water to leave the cell therefore opening the stomata and when there is low water potential the water will come in opening the stomata.

What occurs during the Kreb's cycle in cellular respiration?

oxidation occurs. co2 is produced and NAD and FAD become NADH and FADH2.

After glycolysis, what happens if oxygen is present?

Aerobic respiration will occur. kreb's cycle. electron transport chain.

After glycolysis, what happens if oxygen is not present?

Anaerobic respiration will occur. fermentation.

What are the reactants in cellular respiration? What are the products?

Reactants- glucose and oxygen
Products- water, carbon dioxide, and energy

What are ways in which plants control their loss of water?

1. stomata
2. guard cells
3. cuticle

What happens during the light reaction of photosynthesis?

Happens only in sunlight
1. Light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules
2. energy is transferred to electrons in chlorophyll
3. water is split
- oxygen released
- hydrogen used to create ATP and NADPH in the electron transport chain

What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis?

- amount of sunlight
- amount of carbon dioxide
- temperature
- prescence of stomata

What happens in the Calvin Cycle?

Happens in sunlight and dark. Driven by the ATP and NADPH generated by the light reaction.
1. glucose is manufactured

What are the different ways glucose is used in the cells?

- stored as starch and cellulose
- energy for cellular respiration
- makes chlorophyll

What minerals are absorbed from the soil and how are they used by the plant?

nitrogen + glucose = protein
magnesium + glucose = chlorophyll

What happens during transpiration in a plant?

water is evaporated from the plant and leaves the stoma.

What two tissues make up the veins in a plant? What does each tissue transport?

1.) xylem- transports water and minerals
2.) phloem- transports food

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide + water + sunlight -----> glucose + oxygen + energy

What is the equation for cellular respiration?

glucose + oxygen -----> energy + carbon dioxide + water

Why is the cristae a great spot for cellular respiration?

- more surface area
- more enzymes

What are some characteristics of vascular tissues?

- lignin
- cells are connected end to end

What are two energy carriers produced in the light reaction of photosynthesis?

NADPH and ATP

What is the advantage of plants storing energy as starch?

does not break down as easily.

Where does respiration take place?

mitochondria

What chemical substances from inside and out of the cell are needed for respiration to take place?

outside- oxygen and glucose
inside- enzymes

What are the products of aerobic respiration?

carbon dioxide, water, and energy

During bright sunlight, _______ are passing out of the leaf through the stomata and _____ is entering the leaf through the stomata.

oxygen and hydrogen. carbon dioxide.

What leaves do not have a midrib?

leaf blade

What gases do leafs give out and take in while in bright sunlight and darkness?

sunlight: they give out oxygen and take in carbon dioxide
darkness: take in oxygen and give out co2

What substances does a plant need to make sugar and proteins?

sugar- co2, water, and sunlight
proteins- glucose and nitrogen

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