an ordered sequence of steps that is repeated from the time of one division to the time of the next
In plants, vesicles containing cell wall material collect in the center of the cell then gradually fuse, from the inside out, which gradually develops into a new wall between the two new cells. The membranes surrounding the vesicles fuse to form the new parts of the plasma membrane.
In animals, a ring of microfilaments contracts around the periphery of the cell, that eventually divides the cytoplasm.
reattachments of a fragment in reverse order, less likely to produce harmful effects because all the chromosome's genes are still present.
The spindle is fully formed; chromosomes are aligned single file with centromeres on the metaphase plate (the plane that cuts the spindle's equator).
the process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells, each of which has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mitotic phase (M phase)
Cell division itself that involves two subprocesses, mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division).
provides a scaffold for the movement of chromosomes and attaches to chromosomes at their kinetochore (occurs in the first stage of mitosis).
The mitotic spindle is forming, emerging from two centrosomes. Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell. This stage ends when the chromatins have completely coiled into chromosomes; nucleoli and nuclear membrane disperse. The mitotic spindle provides a scaffold for the movement of chromosomes and attaches to chromosomes at their kinetochore.
the reverse of prophase: Cell elongation continues, a nuclear envelope forms around chromosomes, chromosomes uncoil, and nucleoli reappear.
involves the transfer of a chromosome fragment between nonhomologous chromosomes, may or may not be harmful.