Chromosomes separate from the centromere, dividing to arrive at poles
involves passing traits from only one parent to the next generation
a single parent cell splits to produce two identical daughter cells.
an ordered sequence of steps that is repeated from the time of one division to the time of the next
reproduction that results in new cells.
In plants, vesicles containing cell wall material collect in the center of the cell then gradually fuse, from the inside out, which gradually develops into a new wall between the two new cells. The membranes surrounding the vesicles fuse to form the new parts of the plasma membrane.
where sister chromatids are joined together
a combination of DNA and proteins, unwound as long, thin fibers
the organisms DNA in an organized structure
In animals, a ring of microfilaments contracts around the periphery of the cell, that eventually divides the cytoplasm.
Crossing over (genetic recombination)
the division of the cytoplasm. This usually, but not always, accompanies telophase.
loss of a fragment of chromosome
Gametes (haploid cell)
eggs and sperm
two chromosomes composing a pair, one from each parent
represents 90% or more of the total cycle time and is divided into G1, S, and G2
reattachments of a fragment in reverse order, less likely to produce harmful effects because all the chromosome's genes are still present.
a photographic inventory of an individual's chromosomes
cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid organisms
The spindle is fully formed; chromosomes are aligned single file with centromeres on the metaphase plate (the plane that cuts the spindle's equator).
the process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells, each of which has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mitotic phase (M phase)
Cell division itself that involves two subprocesses, mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division).
provides a scaffold for the movement of chromosomes and attaches to chromosomes at their kinetochore (occurs in the first stage of mitosis).
failure of chromosome pairs to separate during meiosis
The mitotic spindle is forming, emerging from two centrosomes. Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell. This stage ends when the chromatins have completely coiled into chromosomes; nucleoli and nuclear membrane disperse. The mitotic spindle provides a scaffold for the movement of chromosomes and attaches to chromosomes at their kinetochore.
involves passing traits from two parents to the next generation
identical copies of DNA of each chromosome
Somatic cell (diploid cell)
the reverse of prophase: Cell elongation continues, a nuclear envelope forms around chromosomes, chromosomes uncoil, and nucleoli reappear.
involves the transfer of a chromosome fragment between nonhomologous chromosomes, may or may not be harmful.
an ovum that has been fertilized by a spermatozoon