Bio 1 Ch 4, cell structure & function

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cell

the smallest unit that can carry out life processes

cell theory

has three essential parts that say all living organisms are composed of one or more cell, cells are the vasic units of structure and functiuon in an organism, cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells

plasma membrane

covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and th outside of a cell

cytoplasm

region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus is call the

cytosol

part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as robosomes, but not membrane-bound organelles is the

nucleus

contains DNA and chromosomes, is a control center for cells

Prokaryotes

organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

eukaryotes

organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus nad membrane-bound organelles

organelles

well-defined intracellular bodies that perform specific functions for the cell

tissue

group of similar cells and their products that carry outa specific function

organs

groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism are called

organ system

group of organs that accomplish related tasks

phospholipid bilayer

the result of phospholipisd lining up so that their heads point outward toward the water and their tails poin inward away from water resulting in a double layer

chromosomes

structures in the nucleus made of DNA and protein

nuclear envelope

double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus

nucleolus

site where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA

ribosomes

organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein syntheis in the cytoplasm

mitochondria

tiny organelles that transfer energy from organic molecule to ATP "powerhouse"

endoplasmic reticulum

system of membranous tubes and sacs that molecules move along from one part of the cell to another

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

lysosomes

vesicles that contain digestive enzymes

cytoskeleton

tubes and filaments give shape to cell form the inside

microtubules

hollow tubes made of protien

microfilaments

fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton

cillia

hair like. it assits in motion.

flagella

whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement

centrioles

two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope

cell wall

rigid layer that lies outside the cell's plasma membrane

central vacuole

a large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes

plastids

organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA

chloroplasts

use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water

thylakoids

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.

chlorophyll

main molecule that absorbs light and captures light energy for the cell

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