APES Chapter 5 Vocab

36 terms by cacondro 

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Biome

Broad types of biological communities that are put into a few general groups based on similar climate conditions, growth patterns, and vegetation types.

Deserts

Occur where precipitation is rare and unpredictable, often less than 30cm of rain annually.

Grasslands

Occur where there is enough rain to support abundant grass but not enough for forests.

Tundra

A treeless landscape that occurs at high altitudes and on mountaintops, has a growing season of only two or three months, and it may have frost any month of the year. Only small, hardy vegetation can survive. They have relatively low diversity.

Conifer Forests

Forests that contain a wide range of temperate, or midaltitude regions. Many grow where moisture is limited by sandy soil, so thin, waxy leaves prevent moisture loss.

Southern Pine Forests

Conifer forests that grow quickly and tolerate weather and nutrient-poor soil.

Boreal Forests

Norther conifer forest where trees are adapted to harsh winter conditions. (Between Latitudes of 45-60 degrees)

Taiga

Extreme, ragged edge of the boreal forest, where forest gradually gives way to tundra.

Temperate rainforests

Wet coastal forests that are often enshrouded in fog. In the understory, condensation in the canopy is a main source of precipitation.

deciduous

Trees that lose their leaves in the winter.

Broad-Leaved Deciduous Forests

Moist, temperate forest climates that have seasonal changes. Their climate allows these forests to be highly resilient.

Mediterranean

Often dry environments that support drought-adapted shrubs and trees as well as grass. They are highly variable, and generally have hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters.

Chaparral

Areas with hot, dry winters and cool, moist summers. They have drought resistant plants, and have succession maintained by periodic fires. Spanish for thicket.

Thorn Scrub

The African version of the chaparral, although it tends to have more sparse, open shrubland and acacias or other thorny plants..

African Sahel

The edge of the Sahara desert

Cloud Forests

Forests found high in the mountains where fog and mist keep vegetation constantly wet.

Torpical Rainforests

occur in areas with consistently high temperatures and high amounts of precipitation. Although the soil is generally thin and nutrient-deficient, the continuously decomposing matter at the ground level provides high levels of nutrients, and the lush trees create communities at several levels from the ground level to the top of the canopy.

Tropical seasonal forests

Semievergreen or partly deciduous forests tending toward open woodlands and grassy savannas dotted with scattered, drought-resistant tree species.

Savannas

Grasslands with occasional trees.

Phytoplankton

Photosynthetic organisms such as algae, coral, or other tiny, free-floating photosynthetic plants that support the marine food web.

Marine Snow

The term for the organisms that die and sink towards the ocean floor, carrying nutrients through the different strata.

Benthic

Occur on the bottom of the ocean

Pelagic Zones

The water columns in the sea

Coral Reefs

consist of colonies of minute, colonial animals that live symbiotically with photosynthetic algae. The calcium rich coral skeletons provide the reef's structure, and the algae provides the nutrients.

Mangrove Forests

forests that grow in the water, and they usually occur in shallow calm water by the coastline.

Estuaries

bays where rivers empty into the sea, mixing fresh and salt water. Nutrients and sediments are brought downstream by the river and so this area is used by many oceanic species as a place to raise/hatch their young.

Barrier Islands

Long, narrow, sandy islands that form parallel to the coastline. The protect the brackish water ecosystems and other parts of the shoreline from the full power of the ocean.

Littoral Zone

Zone of water that is near to the shore.

Thermoclime

The area between layers of water columns where you can feel a temperature change.

Wetlands

Shallow ecosystems in which the land surface is saturated or submerged at least part of the year.

Swamps

Wetlands with trees.

Marshes

Wetlands withOUT trees.

Bogs

Areas of saturated ground, where the ground is usally composed of peat

Peat

Accumulated layers of undecayed vegetation.

Fens

Bogs that are fed mainly by groundwater.

HIPPO

The main threats posed to biodiversity: Habitat destruction, Invasive Species, Pollution, Population Growth (Human), and overharvesting.

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