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Acquiring new habits best illustrates the process of
A) extrinsic motivation.
B) instinctive drift.
C) learning.
D) spontaneous recovery.

learning

Conditioning is the process of
A) discrimination.
B)spontaneous recovery.
C) learning associations.
D) observational learning.

learning associations

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
A) shaping.
B) extrinsic motivation.
C) classical conditioning.
D) observational learning.

classical conditioning.

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
A) intrinsic motivation.
B} respondent behavior. C)spontaneous recovery.
D) operant conditioning .

operant conditioning

The acquisition of mental information by observing events, by watching others, or through language is called
A) classical conditioning.
B) cognitive learning.
C) partial reinforcement.
D) shaping.

cognitive learning.

In Pavlov's experiments, the taste of food triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation to the
taste of food was a(n)
A) conditioned response.
B) unconditioned response.
C) unconditioned stimulus.
D) conditioned stimulus.

unconditioned stimulus.

In Pavlov's experiments, the sound of the tone triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation
At the sound of a tone was a(n)
A) conditioned response.
B) unconditioned stimulus.
C) unconditioned response.
D) conditioned stimulus.

conditioned response.

In classical conditioning, the NS becomes a _____ after it reliably signals the impending occurrence of the ____
A) US; CS
B) UR; CR
C)CS;US
D) CR; UR

CS;US

At one time Jimmy was scared of dogs because he was bitten by one. With subsequent repeated exposure to tame dogs in safe settings, however, his fear of dogs has gradually faded. Jimmy's diminishing fear of dogs best illustrates
A) delayed reinforcement.
B) spontaneous recovery.
C) extinction.
D) shaping.

delayed reinforcement.

The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
A) generalization.
B)spontaneous recovery.
C} secondary reinforcement.
D) shaping.

spontaneous recovery.

Toddlers taught to fear moving cars may also begin to fear moving trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
A) generalization.
B) secondary reinforcement.
C) shaping.
D) spontaneous recovery.

generalization.

You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to
A) fear cars in the street.
B) dislike the taste of dead birds.
C) wag its tail whenever it is emotionally excited.
D) retrieve sticks and balls.

retrieve sticks and balls

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _______ is to _______
A) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
B) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
C) immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
D) reinforcement; punishment

positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called
a(n)
A) conditioned stimulus.
B) unconditioned stimulus.
C) positive reinforcer.
D) negative reinforcer.

negative reinforcer

To quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
A) classical conditioning rather than operant conditioning.
B) partial reinforcement rather than continuous reinforcement.
C) immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.
D) negative reinforcers rather than positive reinforcers.

immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.

A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only
after a(n)
A) specified time period has elapsed.
B) unpredictable time period has elapsed.
C) specified number of responses have been made.
D) unpredictable number of responses have been made.

specified number of responses have been made.

Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells,
regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a
____ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a _____ schedule.
A) variable-ratio; fixed-ratio
B) fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
C) fixed-ratio; variable-interval
D) fixed-interval; variable-ratio

fixed-ratio; variable-ratio

Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of

A) latent learning.
B) instinctive drift.
C) the law of effect.
D) spontaneous recovery.

instinctive drift.

After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a
A} cognitive map.
B) discriminative stimulus.
C) law of effect.
D) fixed-interval schedule.

cognitive map

The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by
studies of
A) shaping.
B) latent learning
C) extrinsic motivation.
D) online testing.

latent learning

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
A) latent learning.
B) extrinsic motivation.
C) partial reinforcement.
D) delayed reinforcers.

extrinsic motivation

Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
A) respondent behavior.
B) latent learning.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) intrinsic motivation.

intrinsic motivation

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
A) respondent behavior.
B) prosocial behavior.
C) operant conditioning. D)observational learning.

observational learning

Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to
A) practice and preach the virtues of cleanliness.
B) practice cleanliness but not preach its virtues.
C) neither practice nor preach the virtues of cleanliness.
D) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.

preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.

Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This
illustrates the importance of
A) delayed reinforcement.
B) observational learning.
C) respondent behavior.
D) shaping.

observational learning

Children often imitate behaviors seen on television. This best illustrates the impact of
A) modeling.
B) respondent behavior.
C) immediate reinforcement.
D) spontaneous recovery.

modeling

Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ___ increased rates of violent behavior.
A) inhibits
B) causes
C) is unrelated to
D) predicts

predicts

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed that his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
A) respondent behavior.
B) immediate reinforcement.
C) modeling.
D) shaping.

modeling

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the
importance of
A) operant conditioning.
B) respondent behavior.
C) observational learning.
D) spontaneous recovery.

observational learning

We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are
A) conditioned responses.
B) extrinsically motivated.
C) followed by reinforcement.
D) violent or antisocial.

followed by reinforcemen

Psychologists are currently debating whether our physical capacity for mentally simulating the observed behavior of others is due to specialized
A) intrinsic motives.
B) cognitive maps.
C) operant chambers.
D) mirror neurons.

mirror neurons

Alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting

A)conditioned responses.
B) prosocial behavior.
C) extrinsic motivation.
D) spontaneous recovery.

prosocial behavior

Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ____ schedule.
A) fixed-interval
B) variable-interval
C) fixed-ratio
D) variable-ratio

variable-ratio

Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ___ schedule.
A) fixed-interval
B) fixed-ratio
C) variable-interval
D) variable-ratio

variable-interval

Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This
best illustrates the effects of
A) negative reinforcers.
B) generalization.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) punishment.

punishment

The use of physical punishment may
A) lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior.
B) model aggression as a way of coping with problems.
C) lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent.
D) have all of these results.

have all of these results

B.F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's
A) personal freedom.
B) early childhood experiences.
C) pleasure-seeking tendencies.
D) cultural background.

personal freedom.

In a series of experiments, men found women more attractive and sexually desirable when their photos were framed in
A) black.
B) yellow.
C) violet.
D) red.

red

Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
A) can interfere with the process of learning.
B) can be used as negative reinforcers.
C) are acquired through observational learning.
D) may be produced through classical conditioning.

may be produced through classical conditioning.

In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?
A) observational learning
B) classical conditioning
C) operant conditioning
D) latent learning

operant conditioning

B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
A) shaping.
B) observational learning.
C) the law of effect.
D) latent learning.

the law of effect

A Skinner box is a(n)
A) aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors.
B) "slot machine" used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on human gambling practices.
C) chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
D) television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational
learning.

chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n)
A) conditioned stimulus.
B) unconditioned stimulus.
C) reinforcement.
D) operant behavior.

reinforcement.

Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as
A). shaping.
B) modeling.
C) latent learning.
D) intrinsic motivation.

shaping

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the
fIrst animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
A) shaping.
B) spontaneous recovery.
C) respondent behavior.
D) observational learning.

observational learning

John B. Watson considered himself to be a
A) physiological psychologist.
B) cognitive psychologist.
C) behaviorist.
D) psychoanalyst.

behaviorist

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
A) negative reinforcement
B) classical conditioning
C) latent learning
D) operant conditioning

classical conditioning

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called
a(n)
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) secondary reinforcer.
C) neutral stimulus.
D) primary reinforcer.

neutral stimulus

Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
A) playing jump rope
B) running through a maze to get a food reward
C) sweating in hot weather
D) clapping after a thrilling concert performance

sweating in hot weather

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
A) a tone.
B) salivation to the sound of a tone.
C) the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
D)' salivation to the food in the mouth.

the presentation of food in the dog's mouth

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