DEV PSY

Created by ani2012 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Ideal self is BEST defined as what a person

what a person should be like

Three-month-old Gerber is eating strained peas for the very first time. Despite the fact that this is a new experience, Gerber appears quite happy with her meal. With regard to temperament, Gerber is BEST classified as

easy

an overall evaluation of your own self-worth BEST defines your

self-esteem

Which of Tela's statements BEST exemplifies a narrative identity?

i'm introverted

The fact that parents who are taught to interpret and respond more effectively to their child's cues can produce calmer infants who cry less BEST illustrates the concept

goodness of fit

Which statement indicates that Jade adheres to a collectivist culture philosophy?

its not about me its about my country

Negative stereotypes concerning aging

do more harm than good

The personality principle of ____ concerns situation-specific ways in which people adapt to their environment.

dispositional traits

Which statement BEST exemplifies the concept of self-esteem?

all in all, i am a owrthless individual

Which concept is BEST associated with an individual's unique "life story"?

narrative identity

Children's initial recognition of themselves as physically separate from others corresponds with Erikson's ____ psychosocial stage?

trust vs mustrust

In comparing the views of Freud and Erikson with regard to personality development, it is MOST ACCURATE to say that Erikson placed MORE emphasis on ____ than did Freud.

social influences on the development of the rational ego

Twenty-five-year-old Clint has gained enough confidence that he has decided to commit himself to a shared life with his girlfriend. Erikson would suggest that this indicates that Clint is most likely dealing with the conflict of

intimy versus isolation

As a typical three-year-old, when asked about his self-concept, Talisker's answer would typically focus on

physical traits

The key characteristics of someone scoring high on the personality dimension of neuroticism would be

hostile and anxious

both erickson and freud believe that

people in every culture progress through the same stages of personality development

Some of the Big Five traits first begin to show themselves in

early childhood

The ____ identity status would BEST be described as "crisis resolved and direction in life set."

identity achievment

Which BEST summarizes the research on the "midlife crisis"?

ost middle-age people experience some questioning of self during midlife, however few experience a true midlife crisis.

Research on successful aging has found

more support for activity theory

Marsh and Kit-Tai Hua's study on the "big-fish-little-pond effect" found that a student's academic self-concept is less positive when students are

in a school with a lot of high achievers

Ricardo is about to retire. In preparation he has begun to take up golf as a way to fill some of the time he would normally have been at work. Ricardo's response BEST fits with the ____ theory concerning successful aging.

activity

The most accurate description of a dispositional trait is that it is

broad and relatively stable dimension of personality

The social learning perspective assumes that

personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience

While she does not scream when her parents attempt to cuddle with her, Buffy does tend to look away and demonstrate some discomfort with this activity. With regard to temperament, Buffy is BEST classified as

slow to warm

Margaret's children are all in college. Margaret works as a legal secretary, and most of what she earns goes toward paying her children's college tuition. Her own children lead busy lives, with friends and school activities occupying most of their time, so Margaret volunteers one evening each week at the Boys' Home, reading bedtime stories to the young delinquents there. Margaret is BEST classified as fitting into Erikson's stage of

generavity versus stagnation

Cleo has received a high score on the conscientiousness scale of a personality test. This indicates that she would MOST LIKELY be

organized and self disciplined

What is the BEST advice concerning successful aging?

Elderly people should be encouraged to find a good fit between their personality, preferences, and the environment in which they live.

The phrase, "If only I had my life to live over again I would..." is BEST associated with Erikson's ____ psychosocial stage of development.

integrity versus despair

According to Erikson, psychologically healthy middle-aged adults are MOST likely to

develop a deep concern with making a contribution to society and passing on something of value to younger generations

Forty-year-old Zelda is proud of the tutoring she is doing at school with kids who have learning problems, and feels that she is doing something positive for future generations. It is MOST LIKELY that Zelda is in Erikson's stage of

generavity versus stagnation

Research on the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests that

placing children with learning disabilities in a regular education room may negatively impact their self-esteem.

What is the developmental relationship between ideal self, present self, and future self?

The three aspects of self are most similar in the elderly adult years.

The period of experimenting with different roles that is so common during adolescence is referred to as the ____ period.

moratoriam

People living in individualistic cultures tend to define themselves as

individuals, and put their own good ahead of that of society

Which is BEST described as the overall sense of who you are?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
identity

...

At what age does personality tend to fully "gel" (i.e., begins to predict adult personality)?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
elementary school years

...

Which is NOT one of McCrae and Costa's traits?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
openness to experience
Correct Answer: a.
inferiority

...

The debate concerning successful aging in old age involves the ____ debate.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
activity-disengagement
Correct Answer: b.
activity-disengagement

...

The "Big Five" traits
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
are genetically influenced
Correct Answer: a.
are genetically influenced

...

Who would be MOST LIKELY to argue that the vast majority of personality is formed between birth and age 6?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist
Correct Answer: a.
Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Introversion-extraversion is best classified as a
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
dispositional trait
Correct Answer: d.
dispositional trait

...

The temperament dimension of ____ is defined as the tendency to be sad or easily frustrated.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
surgency
Correct Answer: a.
negative affectivity
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research investigating Erikson's claim that identity paves the way for the establishment of intimate relationships has revealed that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
the acquisition of a well-formed identity does appear to facilitate intimacy in relationships, but the impact may vary somewhat by sex and gender
Correct Answer: a.
the acquisition of a well-formed identity does appear to facilitate intimacy in relationships, but the impact may vary somewhat by sex and gender
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Slow-to-warm temperament is characterized by
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
relative inactivity and mild reactions to change in routine
Correct Answer: a.
relative inactivity and mild reactions to change in routine
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Harter's self-perception research with children indicated that self-esteem
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components
Correct Answer: d.
is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
About one year after she retired, Betty Joe suddenly became very unhappy and expressed the opinion that she now had nothing to do in her life. Atchley would argue that Betty Joe appears have entered the ____ phase of retirement.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
disenchantment
Correct Answer: c.
disenchantment

...

____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual's unique attributes, motives, and behaviors.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Personality
Correct Answer: b.
Personality
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning vocational development in adolescence is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Minority status may lead one to lower or compromise one's career plans.
Correct Answer: b.
Minority status may lead one to lower or compromise one's career plans.
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Children who are high in self-esteem have parents who
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
have a "warm" and democratic parenting style
Correct Answer: b.
have a "warm" and democratic parenting style
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement BEST exemplifies the concept of self-esteem?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
"All-in-all, I am a worthless individual."
Correct Answer: a.
"All-in-all, I am a worthless individual."
Question 5

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Research has indicated that as individuals move from adolescence to middle-age they would be most likely to experience a modest increase in
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
openness to new experience
Correct Answer: a.
conscientiousness
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Harter's self-perception research with children indicated that self-esteem
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components
Correct Answer: b.
is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Jimmy's mother paints his face like a clown for Halloween and holds him up to look at himself in the mirror. Jimmy laughs, and rubs his hands all over his own cheeks making a mess of the paint job! Given his behavior, the YOUNGEST you should expect Jimmy to be is
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
18 months
Correct Answer: c.
18 months
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
When Joe looks in a mirror and remarks, "Hey, that's me!" he is demonstrating
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
self-recognition
Correct Answer: d.
self-recognition
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Temperament is BEST described as
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
a genetically based tendency to respond in a predictable way that is first seen in early infancy
Correct Answer: d.
a genetically based tendency to respond in a predictable way that is first seen in early infancy
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
A positive sense of ethnic identity
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
can protect an adolescent from damaging effects of racial discrimination
Correct Answer: d.
can protect an adolescent from damaging effects of racial discrimination
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In comparing the views of Freud and Erikson with regard to personality development, it is MOST ACCURATE to say that Erikson placed MORE emphasis on ____ than did Freud.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
social influences on the development of the rational ego
Correct Answer: b.
social influences on the development of the rational ego
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Cleo has received a high score on the conscientiousness scale of a personality test. This indicates that she would MOST LIKELY be
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
well organized and highly self-disciplined
Correct Answer: d.
well organized and highly self-disciplined
Question 13

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Research by Kagan and his colleagues concluded that behavioral inhibition is ____ rooted.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
socially
Correct Answer: a.
subconsciously
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research on early temperament and later development suggests that
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
there is a meaningful relationship between early temperament and adult personality
Correct Answer: c.
there is a meaningful relationship between early temperament and adult personality
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Twenty-five-year-old Clint has gained enough confidence that he has decided to commit himself to a shared life with his girlfriend. Erikson would suggest that this indicates that Clint is most likely dealing with the conflict of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
intimacy versus isolation
Correct Answer: c.
intimacy versus isolation
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The social learning perspective assumes that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience
Correct Answer: b.
personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement indicates that Jade adheres to a collectivist culture philosophy?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
"It's not about me, it's about my country."
Correct Answer: d.
"It's not about me, it's about my country."
Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Fonzie's statement, "I am a fairly incompetent motorcycle rider" provides a good example of his
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
self-concept
Correct Answer: c.
self-concept
Question 19

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
One-year-old Barker has some trouble dealing with new situations. In addition, he tends to be relatively inactive and moody. With regard to temperament, Barker is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
difficult
Correct Answer: b.
slow-to-warm
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The main development trend concerning vocational identity in late adolescence is that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
choices become more realistic
Correct Answer: a.
choices become more realistic
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is BEST described as the overall sense of who you are?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
identity
Correct Answer: a.
identity
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Margaret's children are all in college. Margaret works as a legal secretary, and most of what she earns goes toward paying her children's college tuition. Her own children lead busy lives, with friends and school activities occupying most of their time, so Margaret volunteers one evening each week at the Boys' Home, reading bedtime stories to the young delinquents there. Margaret is BEST classified as fitting into Erikson's stage of
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
generativity versus stagnation
Correct Answer: d.
generativity versus stagnation
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Forty-year-old Zelda is proud of the tutoring she is doing at school with kids who have learning problems, and feels that she is doing something positive for future generations. It is MOST LIKELY that Zelda is in Erikson's stage of
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
generativity versus stagnation
Correct Answer: b.
generativity versus stagnation
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The ____ identity status would BEST be described as "active exploration of options."
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
moratorium
Correct Answer: c.
moratorium
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to Erikson, psychologically healthy middle-aged adults are MOST likely to
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
develop a deep concern with making a contribution to society and passing on something of value to younger generations
Correct Answer: b.
develop a deep concern with making a contribution to society and passing on something of value to younger generations

...

Which statement regarding the achievement of identity status is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
The rate of identify achievement differs across domains of identity.
Correct Answer: c.
By age 20, most individuals have reached complete identity achievement status.
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Rave is a blast at parties. She seems to love the spotlight and craves excitement. A psychometric theorist would MOST LIKELY describe Rave as being
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
extraverted
Correct Answer: b.
extraverted
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Five-month-old Ruby is beginning to recognize that her mother, Opal, does not tend to come to feed her when she is hungry. According to Erikson, Ruby is currently involved in a psychosocial crisis of
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
trust versus mistrust
Correct Answer: d.
trust versus mistrust
Question 4

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Self-esteem rating tends to be highest in people in their
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
thirties
Correct Answer: a.
sixties
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research has indicated that as individuals move from adolescence to middle-age they would be most likely to experience a modest increase in
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
conscientiousness
Correct Answer: d.
conscientiousness
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Children who are behaviorally inhibited are
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
high in neuroticism and low in extraversion
Correct Answer: c.
high in neuroticism and low in extraversion
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning career issues is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Gender-role expectations have little impact on one's career.
Correct Answer: d.
Gender-role expectations have little impact on one's career.
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In comparing the views of Freud and Erikson with regard to personality development, it is MOST ACCURATE to say that Erikson placed MORE emphasis on ____ than did Freud.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
social influences on the development of the rational ego
Correct Answer: b.
social influences on the development of the rational ego
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
People living in individualistic cultures tend to define themselves as
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
individuals, and put their own good ahead of that of society
Correct Answer: d.
individuals, and put their own good ahead of that of society
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
A significant change in self-description that appears at about age eight is a shift from descriptions focusing on
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities
Correct Answer: b.
physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities
Question 11

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
With regard to personality development, what belief is shared by Albert Bandura and Erik Erikson?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
There are universal, age-related changes in personality development.
Correct Answer: c.
Personality has the potential to change during adulthood.
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Negative stereotypes concerning aging
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
do more harm than good
Correct Answer: a.
do more harm than good
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual's unique attributes, motives, and behaviors.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Personality
Correct Answer: b.
Personality
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Vicki was reserved as a baby, shy as a child, and shy as an adult. Social learning theorists would say that Vicki
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
is a product of environments that consistently fostered the same personality trait
Correct Answer: b.
is a product of environments that consistently fostered the same personality trait
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is likely to contribute MOST to change in personality across the life-span?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
poor person-environment fit
Correct Answer: a.
poor person-environment fit
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Rose is 16 years old and her sister Blossom is 9 years old. In terms of their self-perceptions, research would suggest that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Rose would be more self-aware than Blossom.
Correct Answer: a.
Rose would be more self-aware than Blossom.
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The personality principle of ____ concerns situation-specific ways in which people adapt to their environment.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
dispositional traits
Correct Answer: c.
dispositional traits
Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Harter's self-perception research with children indicated that self-esteem
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components
Correct Answer: b.
is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement BEST exemplifies the concept of self-esteem?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
"All-in-all, I am a worthless individual."
Correct Answer: b.
"All-in-all, I am a worthless individual."
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is TRUE regarding personality during adulthood?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Broad personality dimensions, such as extroversion and neuroticism, are fairly stable across adulthood.
Correct Answer: d.
Broad personality dimensions, such as extroversion and neuroticism, are fairly stable across adulthood.
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
While normally calm, 10-year-old Gretta becomes very shy and highly distressed when she is in an unfamiliar setting with people she does not know. Gretta would BEST be categorized as
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
behaviorally inhibited
Correct Answer: b.
behaviorally inhibited
Question 22

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
When Carmello is playing basketball he is very aggressive. When he is playing at his house with his young daughter he is very passive. These situations BEST exemplify the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
different context, same personality
Correct Answer: a.
different context, different personality
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Both Freud and Erikson believed that
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
people in every culture progress through the same stages of personality development
Correct Answer: c.
people in every culture progress through the same stages of personality development
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
A person high in negative affectivity would MOST LIKELY be described as
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
irritable
Correct Answer: a.
irritable
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
One-year-old Markus loves interacting with his peers. A developmental theorist would MOST LIKELY describe Markus as being high on the ____ dimension of temperament.
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
surgency
Correct Answer: a.
surgency

...

Self-esteem rating tends to be highest in people in their
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
sixties
Correct Answer: b.
sixties
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research by Kagan and his colleagues concluded that behavioral inhibition is ____ rooted.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
subconsciously
Correct Answer: d.
subconsciously
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Ricardo is about to retire. In preparation he has begun to take up golf as a way to fill some of the time he would normally have been at work. Ricardo's response BEST fits with the ____ theory concerning successful aging.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
activity
Correct Answer: b.
activity
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Children who are behaviorally inhibited are
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
high in neuroticism and low in extraversion
Correct Answer: a.
high in neuroticism and low in extraversion
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Some of the Big Five traits first begin to show themselves in
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
early childhood
Correct Answer: d.
early childhood
Question 6

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Winona's mother and father are both professional singers, as are her two older sisters. Winona is in college, enrolled in a music curriculum. When asked about her career goals, Winona states "I'll be a singer, of course. Everyone in my family is a singer. I've never thought of being anything else." Winona 's identity status is BEST described in terms of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
identity achievement
Correct Answer: d.
foreclosure
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Five-month-old Ruby is beginning to recognize that her mother, Opal, does not tend to come to feed her when she is hungry. According to Erikson, Ruby is currently involved in a psychosocial crisis of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
trust versus mistrust
Correct Answer: c.
trust versus mistrust
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The personality principle of ____ concerns situation-specific ways in which people adapt to their environment.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
dispositional traits
Correct Answer: d.
dispositional traits
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The social learning perspective assumes that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience
Correct Answer: b.
personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience
Question 10

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Wanda is a college student who is currently experiencing a moratorium period. This means that she is MOST LIKELY
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
experiencing a crisis of trust
Correct Answer: d.
relatively free of responsibilities
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Sixty-year-old Irene has been a secretary for 30 years. Despite her advancing age, her typing skills remain excellent. This is in most part due to the fact that Irene continues to practice her typing every day. The Baltes' would suggest that the process of ____ is MOST responsible for Irene's continued high level of performance.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
optimization
Correct Answer: c.
optimization
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which of the following utterances clearly demonstrates the development of a categorical sense of self?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
"I big girl"
Correct Answer: b.
"I big girl"
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement would indicate that an individual has a high level of surgency?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
"I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people."
Correct Answer: d.
"I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people."
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
With regard to personality development during adulthood, which is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
There is generally more change in personality between adolescence and middle age than there is between middle age and old age.
Correct Answer: b.
There is generally more change in personality between adolescence and middle age than there is between middle age and old age.
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The period of experimenting with different roles that is so common during adolescence is referred to as the ____ period.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
moratorium
Correct Answer: b.
moratorium
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement regarding the achievement of identity status is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
By age 20, most individuals have reached complete identity achievement status.
Correct Answer: b.
By age 20, most individuals have reached complete identity achievement status.
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
What is the developmental relationship between ideal self, present self, and future self?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
The three aspects of self are most similar in the elderly adult years.
Correct Answer: a.
The three aspects of self are most similar in the elderly adult years.
Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Correct
When considering himself, Shaggy thinks, "While I am not any of these things, I should be smart, I should be nice, I should be good at sports." These thoughts BEST represent Shaggy's
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
ideal self
Correct Answer: a.
ideal self
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
About one year after she retired, Betty Joe suddenly became very unhappy and expressed the opinion that she now had nothing to do in her life. Atchley would argue that Betty Joe appears have entered the ____ phase of retirement.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
disenchantment
Correct Answer: d.
disenchantment
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Using a life story approach McLean and Pratt (2006) found that the more the sophisticated the "meaning making" in an adolescent's life narrative the
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
less likely they would be in a state of foreclosure
Correct Answer: d.
less likely they would be in a state of foreclosure
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The key characteristics of someone scoring high on the personality dimension of neuroticism would be
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
hostile and anxious
Correct Answer: d.
hostile and anxious
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The fact that parents who are taught to interpret and respond more effectively to their child's cues can produce calmer infants who cry less BEST illustrates the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
goodness of fit
Correct Answer: a.
goodness of fit
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The psychometric approach to personality has led researchers to believe that personality
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits
Correct Answer: b.
is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Who would be MOST LIKELY to argue that the vast majority of personality is formed between birth and age 6?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist
Correct Answer: d.
Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist
Question 25

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Who is MOST LIKELY to experience a decrease in self-esteem in early adolescence?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
a Latino female
Correct Answer: a.
a white female

...

Which statement would indicate that an individual has a high level of surgency?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
"I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people."
Correct Answer: d.
"I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people."
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
After months of consideration, college sophomore Burrhus has just come to the conclusion that a career in psychology is the right thing for him. As a result he has just switched to a psychology major and has signed up for several psychology courses for the next semester. Concerning his career plans, Burrhus appears to be in the ____ status stage.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
identity achievement
Correct Answer: b.
identity achievement
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
With regard to personality development, what belief is shared by Albert Bandura and Erik Erikson?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Personality has the potential to change during adulthood.
Correct Answer: c.
Personality has the potential to change during adulthood.
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is NOT one of McCrae and Costa's traits?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
inferiority
Correct Answer: b.
inferiority
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
A significant change in self-description that appears at about age eight is a shift from descriptions focusing on
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities
Correct Answer: c.
physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The average newborn appears to have
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
no sense of self
Correct Answer: c.
no sense of self
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research on successful aging has found
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
more support for activity theory
Correct Answer: d.
more support for activity theory
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Who is MOST LIKELY to experience a decrease in self-esteem in early adolescence?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
a white female
Correct Answer: d.
a white female
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Three-month-old Gerber is eating strained peas for the very first time. Despite the fact that this is a new experience, Gerber appears quite happy with her meal. With regard to temperament, Gerber is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
easy
Correct Answer: b.
easy
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Easy temperament is characterized by
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
happiness and openness to new experience
Correct Answer: d.
happiness and openness to new experience
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The "Big Five" traits
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
are genetically influenced
Correct Answer: b.
are genetically influenced
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The main development trend concerning vocational identity in late adolescence is that
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
choices become more realistic
Correct Answer: d.
choices become more realistic
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Harrison believes that Erikson's theory of personality development is very accurate. Thus, Harrison would MOST LIKELY believe that his 17-year-old son, Ford, would currently be experiencing the psychosocial conflict involving
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
identity and role confusion
Correct Answer: d.
identity and role confusion
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Forty-year-old Zelda is proud of the tutoring she is doing at school with kids who have learning problems, and feels that she is doing something positive for future generations. It is MOST LIKELY that Zelda is in Erikson's stage of
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
generativity versus stagnation
Correct Answer: d.
generativity versus stagnation
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Fonzie's statement, "I am a fairly incompetent motorcycle rider" provides a good example of his
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
self-concept
Correct Answer: a.
self-concept
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual's unique attributes, motives, and behaviors.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Personality
Correct Answer: d.
Personality
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The period of experimenting with different roles that is so common during adolescence is referred to as the ____ period.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
moratorium
Correct Answer: b.
moratorium
Question 18

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Children first begin to define themselves as part of a group around ____ years of age.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
2
Correct Answer: a.
8
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Children's initial recognition of themselves as physically separate from others corresponds with Erikson's ____ psychosocial stage?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
trust versus mistrust
Correct Answer: c.
trust versus mistrust
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In most settings, an easy temperament is associated with more positive adaptation. However, in times of famine, infants with "difficult" temperaments in the Masai tribe have been known to outlive babies with "easy" temperaments. This finding is used to illustrate the important effect that ____ has on developmental outcome.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
goodness-of-fit
Correct Answer: d.
goodness-of-fit
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
As a typical three-year-old, when asked about his self-concept, Talisker's answer would typically focus on
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
physical traits
Correct Answer: b.
physical traits
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Ideal self is BEST defined as what a person
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
should be like
Correct Answer: c.
should be like
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
We all share the same
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
human nature
Correct Answer: b.
human nature
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The psychometric approach to personality has led researchers to believe that personality
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits
Correct Answer: a.
is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The ____ identity status would BEST be described as "no conflict, no crisis, and no clue."
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
diffusion
Correct Answer: d.
diffusion

...

In general, young adolescents
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
are more accepting of peers' cross-sex interests than they are likely to be as adults
Correct Answer: c.
view gender-role violations as a sign of psychological abnormality
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Renaldo (a male) is extremely affectionate, gentle, and understanding. Given these traits, he is MOST LIKELY to be classified as ____ if he were to take a gender role test.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
feminine sex-typed
Correct Answer: b.
feminine sex-typed
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Males out-perform females on tests of mental rotation
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
throughout the life span
Correct Answer: c.
throughout the life span
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
If American children Nicholas (a boy) and Alexandra (a girl) are typical of other members of their sex, then you would predict that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant.
Correct Answer: b.
Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant.
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the BEST example of an in-group/out-group gender schema?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Boys can fight but girls should play nice.
Correct Answer: b.
Boys can fight but girls should play nice.
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Observations of infants and infant sexuality suggest all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
they actively seek sexual contact with other infants
Correct Answer: d.
they actively seek sexual contact with other infants
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
RuPaul has just come to realize that when a boy dresses like a girl they do not actually become a girl. In cognitive developmental theory, RuPaul appears to have just acquired
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
gender consistency
Correct Answer: c.
gender consistency
Question 8

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
"I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do." This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
biosocial theory
Correct Answer: c.
cognitive-developmental theory
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
hormonal
Correct Answer: d.
hormonal
Question 10

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Men and women tend to develop more similar gender roles after their children have "left the nest."
Correct Answer: c.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In families where parents show clear patterns of differential reinforcement concerning sex-appropriate behavior, children tend to
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences
Correct Answer: a.
develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences
Question 12

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Based on research by Stoddart and Turiel, which two people would you expect to hold the most negative attitudes concerning the violation of gender roles (e.g., a boy wearing nail polish)?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
a seven-year-old and a nine-year-old
Correct Answer: d.
a five-year-old and a 13-year-old
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Correct Answer: d.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Question 14

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
With regard to children's views of gender stereotypes, research has indicated that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
nine-year-olds are more bothered than five-year-olds when kids engage in activities that violate gender-role stereotypes
Correct Answer: c.
five-year-olds are more upset by violations of gender-role stereotypes than are nine-year-olds
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
How would you demonstrate androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Correct Answer: c.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Oedipus is to Electra as
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
boy is to girl
Correct Answer: b.
boy is to girl
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The impact of sexual abuse appears to be MOST severe when the abuse was a
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
frequent, long-term event involving a close relative
Correct Answer: d.
frequent, long-term event involving a close relative
Question 18

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which of the following is TRUE regarding children's knowledge of sex and reproduction?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Children tend to rely on adult explanations for reproduction, rather than constructing their own form of understanding.
Correct Answer: b.
Children's level of understanding is linked to their cognitive development.
Question 19

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
When asked if it is OK for a boy to play with dolls, Geoffery says, "Absolutely not, it's a rule that only girls can play with dolls." Based on Damon's research on gender-roles and stereotypes, what age is Geoffery MOST LIKELY to be?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
eight-years-old
Correct Answer: c.
six-years-old
Question 20

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The most common criticism of Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
there is no evidence that the development of cognitive skills is related to the acquisition of gender typing
Correct Answer: d.
children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency
Question 21

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which two groups view violations of gender roles most negatively?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
preschoolers and elementary school-age children
Correct Answer: a.
kindergartners and adolescents
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Through her mother's efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl. In the near future, Olive's mother will teach Olive about the kinds of behaviors expected of girls. This instruction is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender typing
Correct Answer: a.
gender typing
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Correct Answer: d.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Question 24

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
The Oedipus complex
Correct Answer: c.
identification
Question 25

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Baron-Cohen claims that a man's tendency to systemize is the result of
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
a double standard
Correct Answer: a.
having a male brain

...

RuPaul has just come to realize that when a boy dresses like a girl they do not actually become a girl. In cognitive developmental theory, RuPaul appears to have just acquired
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender consistency
Correct Answer: a.
gender consistency
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The establishment of primarily same-sexed friendships is first apparent by around age
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
30 months
Correct Answer: d.
30 months
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which BEST illustrates gender segregation?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
seeing one group consisting of all girls playing at one end of a gym and an all-boy group playing at the other end
Correct Answer: b.
seeing one group consisting of all girls playing at one end of a gym and an all-boy group playing at the other end
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Each society generally has a set of expectations regarding the behaviors and traits that are considered appropriate for males as compared to females. These sets of expectations are
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
gender roles
Correct Answer: b.
gender roles
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning current teen sexuality is the United States is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Teens tend to view oral sex as significantly more "intimate" than did their parents' generation.
Correct Answer: a.
Teens tend to view oral sex as significantly more "intimate" than did their parents' generation.
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Whose statement indicates an understanding of gender stability?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Tom, who says "Once a boy always a boy."
Correct Answer: b.
Tom, who says "Once a boy always a boy."
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Five-year-old Emeril loves watching cooking shows on television. Emeril's dad is very concerned that by watching these shows, Emeril will become feminine. Which type of theorist would be MOST LIKELY to agree with Emeril's dad's concern over the impact of television on gender role development?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
a social learning theorist
Correct Answer: d.
a social learning theorist
Question 8

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Regarding sexuality during old age
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
only a very small minority (less than 5 percent) of people over age 70 continue to engage in sexual intercourse
Correct Answer: b.
sexual activity is most common when a person is married (versus divorced)
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which trait is BEST associated with the tendency to systemize?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
exploration of how things work
Correct Answer: b.
exploration of how things work
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
"Agency" is defined as the
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
central aspect of the masculine gender role
Correct Answer: c.
central aspect of the masculine gender role
Question 11

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
In general, gender roles
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
tend to remain constant across the adult years
Correct Answer: b.
become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child
Question 12

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Gender instrumentality is to expressivity as
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
analytical is to companionate
Correct Answer: d.
assertive is to affectionate
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Through her mother's efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl. In the near future, Olive's mother will teach Olive about the kinds of behaviors expected of girls. This instruction is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender typing
Correct Answer: a.
gender typing
Question 14

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
In psychoanalytic theory, the process in which a child resolves the biologically based love for the parent of the opposite sex by emulating their behavior and attitudes is called
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
reaction formation
Correct Answer: b.
identification
Question 15

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The goal of the gender role aspect called "agency" is to prepare a person for
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
the onset of sexual urges in puberty
Correct Answer: d.
individual achievement
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to psychoanalytic theory, gender-role development occurs primarily as a result of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents
Correct Answer: c.
children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Oedipus is to Electra as
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
boy is to girl
Correct Answer: b.
boy is to girl
Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Regarding the Freudian perspective on sex-role development, which of the following has NOT been supported by research?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear.
Correct Answer: a.
Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear.
Question 19

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The Piagetian concept of ____ appears to be MOST directly linked to the acquisition of gender consistency.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
formal operational thought
Correct Answer: c.
concrete operational thought
Question 20

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Money and Ehrhardt's biosocial theory of gender typing suggests all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
early biological developments influence how parents label and treat a child at birth
Correct Answer: c.
fetal chromosomal differences (e.g., XX versus XY) are the most important factors in determining gender-role behavior
Question 21

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
a physiological incapacity to engage in intercourse
Correct Answer: d.
lack of a partner
Question 22

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
____ females have external genitalia that resemble those of a boy.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Androgynous
Correct Answer: d.
Androgenized
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Recent research on sex differences suggests that girls are
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers
Correct Answer: d.
more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In families where parents show clear patterns of differential reinforcement concerning sex-appropriate behavior, children tend to
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences
Correct Answer: c.
develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences
Question 25

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
While Charlotte is growing up she is socialized into believing that a woman should stay home and take care of the children while men go off to work and "bring home the bacon." This message BEST reflects what your text refers to as a
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
gender-role stereotype
Correct Answer: c.
gender-role norm

...

Oedipus is to Electra as
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
boy is to girl
Correct Answer: d.
boy is to girl
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The basic premise of gender schema theory is that children actively seek objects and/or activities that
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
match their own-sex schemata
Correct Answer: c.
match their own-sex schemata
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a male?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
XY
Correct Answer: b.
XY
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
With regard to gender-role development, social learning theorists have been criticized for
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process
Correct Answer: a.
portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Correct Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Question 6

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which statement concerning sex differences is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Actual sex differences are large and they make a major difference in a society.
Correct Answer: a.
Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society.
Question 7

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role development
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
is highly dependent on the successful mastery of the Oedipus or Electra complex
Correct Answer: c.
depends on stagelike changes in thinking
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Gender schemata
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
Correct Answer: a.
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which would BEST fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in the child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Parents attribute their daughter's math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math.
Correct Answer: a.
Parents attribute their daughter's math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math.
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Carl Jung's notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
androgyny shift
Correct Answer: d.
androgyny shift
Question 11

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
A baby with an XY chromosome pattern
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
can develop the internal system of a male or female, but can only develop the external genitalia of a male
Correct Answer: d.
can develop the internal or external sex and reproductive system of either sex
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
gender-role stereotypes
Correct Answer: b.
gender-role stereotypes
Question 13

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Androgyny refers to individuals who are
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
low in masculine traits and low in feminine traits
Correct Answer: d.
high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to Freudians, identification is MOST LIKELY to be used to resolve anxiety due to
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
incestuous desire
Correct Answer: d.
incestuous desire
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the BEST example of a communality role in American society?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
caring for a sick child
Correct Answer: d.
caring for a sick child
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
How would you demonstrate androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Correct Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The theory that becoming parents pressures males to be more "masculine" and females to be more "feminine" is referred to as the
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
parental imperative
Correct Answer: d.
parental imperative
Question 18

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The social-role hypothesis predicts that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender differences are fairly universal because they originate in biological differences
Correct Answer: c.
gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
identification
Correct Answer: d.
identification
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
gender identity
Correct Answer: d.
gender identity
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The most common criticism of Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency
Correct Answer: b.
children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Prior to the birth of their first child Ward and June have very strong gender role orientation. Ward, the father, is extremely masculine while June, the mother, is extremely feminine. According to the "parental imperative" what would you expect to happen to Ward and June's gender roles following the birth of their first son, Wally?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
There will be little change in their gender roles.
Correct Answer: b.
There will be little change in their gender roles.
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
lack of a partner
Correct Answer: d.
lack of a partner
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Regarding the Freudian perspective on sex-role development, which of the following has NOT been supported by research?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear.
Correct Answer: c.
Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear.
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Correct Answer: a.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Oedipus is to Electra as
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
boy is to girl
Correct Answer: d.
boy is to girl
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The basic premise of gender schema theory is that children actively seek objects and/or activities that
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
match their own-sex schemata
Correct Answer: c.
match their own-sex schemata
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a male?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
XY
Correct Answer: b.
XY
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
With regard to gender-role development, social learning theorists have been criticized for
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process
Correct Answer: a.
portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Correct Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Question 6

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which statement concerning sex differences is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Actual sex differences are large and they make a major difference in a society.
Correct Answer: a.
Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society.
Question 7

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role development
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
is highly dependent on the successful mastery of the Oedipus or Electra complex
Correct Answer: c.
depends on stagelike changes in thinking
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Gender schemata
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
Correct Answer: a.
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which would BEST fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in the child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Parents attribute their daughter's math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math.
Correct Answer: a.
Parents attribute their daughter's math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math.
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Carl Jung's notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
androgyny shift
Correct Answer: d.
androgyny shift
Question 11

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
A baby with an XY chromosome pattern
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
can develop the internal system of a male or female, but can only develop the external genitalia of a male
Correct Answer: d.
can develop the internal or external sex and reproductive system of either sex
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
gender-role stereotypes
Correct Answer: b.
gender-role stereotypes
Question 13

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Androgyny refers to individuals who are
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
low in masculine traits and low in feminine traits
Correct Answer: d.
high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to Freudians, identification is MOST LIKELY to be used to resolve anxiety due to
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
incestuous desire
Correct Answer: d.
incestuous desire
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the BEST example of a communality role in American society?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
caring for a sick child
Correct Answer: d.
caring for a sick child
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
How would you demonstrate androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Correct Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The theory that becoming parents pressures males to be more "masculine" and females to be more "feminine" is referred to as the
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
parental imperative
Correct Answer: d.
parental imperative
Question 18

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The social-role hypothesis predicts that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender differences are fairly universal because they originate in biological differences
Correct Answer: c.
gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
identification
Correct Answer: d.
identification
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
gender identity
Correct Answer: d.
gender identity
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The most common criticism of Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency
Correct Answer: b.
children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Prior to the birth of their first child Ward and June have very strong gender role orientation. Ward, the father, is extremely masculine while June, the mother, is extremely feminine. According to the "parental imperative" what would you expect to happen to Ward and June's gender roles following the birth of their first son, Wally?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
There will be little change in their gender roles.
Correct Answer: b.
There will be little change in their gender roles.
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
lack of a partner
Correct Answer: d.
lack of a partner
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Regarding the Freudian perspective on sex-role development, which of the following has NOT been supported by research?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear.
Correct Answer: c.
Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear.
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Correct Answer: a.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.

...

Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves
Correct Answer: d.
are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Observations of infants and infant sexuality suggest all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
they actively seek sexual contact with other infants
Correct Answer: d.
they actively seek sexual contact with other infants
Question 3

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
On which of the following points do ALL the theories of gender-role development agree?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Gender roles depend on acquiring a certain level of cognitive development.
Correct Answer: a.
Gender roles that children develop depend on what their society offers in terms of gender models.
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Gutmann's hypothesis regarding the "parental imperative" suggests that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
becoming parents pressures males to be more "masculine" and females to be more "feminine"
Correct Answer: b.
becoming parents pressures males to be more "masculine" and females to be more "feminine"
Question 5

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
A major difference between Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory and Martin and Halverson's gender-schema theory is that gender-typing in the gender-schema theory
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
does not begin to develop until after children have developed gender stability and gender consistency
Correct Answer: a.
begins as soon as children acquire gender identity at around two to three years of age
Question 6

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
In what area of mathematics do females show a slight edge?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
problem-solving skills
Correct Answer: c.
grades in math class
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to the concept of androgyny shift,
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
during midlife people begin to adopt some of the gender traits associated with the opposite sex
Correct Answer: a.
during midlife people begin to adopt some of the gender traits associated with the opposite sex
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Oedipus is to Electra as
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
boy is to girl
Correct Answer: b.
boy is to girl
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning sex differences is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society.
Correct Answer: a.
Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society.
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
For the first time in her life, little Glenda looks at her mom and says, "Glenda is a girl." This statement indicates that Glenda has just achieved
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
gender identity
Correct Answer: c.
gender identity
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
How would you demonstrate androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Correct Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Correct Answer: a.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Twin studies on sexual orientation show that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation
Correct Answer: b.
genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Correct Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Boys go through a phase where they adore their mothers and resent, even fear, their fathers. Freud referred to this phase as involving a(n) ____ complex.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Oedipus
Correct Answer: d.
Oedipus
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
When discussing sex with his buddies, Hef says, "The key is to understand that normal guys want and need sex, whereas girls who want sex are immoral and corrupt." Hef's comments best exemplify the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
the double standard
Correct Answer: a.
the double standard
Question 17

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
In the hypothetical country called Ozland, females drive trucks and males drive cars. This indicates that Ozland has
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
joint attention
Correct Answer: c.
gender roles
Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Most children clearly demonstrate basic gender identity by
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
2? to 3 years of age
Correct Answer: d.
2? to 3 years of age
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
If American children Nicholas (a boy) and Alexandra (a girl) are typical of other members of their sex, then you would predict that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant.
Correct Answer: b.
Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant.
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research on reinforcement of sex-appropriate behavior indicates that
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys
Correct Answer: c.
fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys
Question 21

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Communality roles are designed to prepare someone to be
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
achievement oriented
Correct Answer: d.
sensitive
Question 22

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which statement concerning toddlers' understanding of gender roles is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Females and males appear to understand gender-based activities at the same age.
Correct Answer: c.
Females appear to understand gender-based activities earlier than males.
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The social-role hypothesis predicts that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society
Correct Answer: a.
gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Recent research by Morrongiello and Hogg found that when asked to imagine their children misbehaving, moms reported that they felt ____ toward their sons and ____ toward their daughters.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
anger; disappointment
Correct Answer: c.
anger; disappointment
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Correct Answer: d.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.

...

Carl Jung's notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
androgyny shift
Correct Answer: c.
androgyny shift
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Correct Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which type of theorist would be most likely to argue that watching videos in which males are rewarded for sexual violence would directly lead to them engaging in violent sex acts in order to be manly?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
a social learning theorist
Correct Answer: b.
a social learning theorist
Question 4

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The BEST summary concerning differences in verbal abilities is that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
females appear to have a large advantage
Correct Answer: c.
females appear to have a small advantage
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
hormonal
Correct Answer: c.
hormonal
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Some individuals inherit an XX chromosome pattern but are exposed prenatally to drugs that are converted to male hormones once in the body. These individuals are likely to
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
have masculinized genitalia and behave in more "masculine ways"
Correct Answer: c.
have masculinized genitalia and behave in more "masculine ways"
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
How would you demonstrate androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Correct Answer: a.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
"I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do." This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
cognitive-developmental theory
Correct Answer: b.
cognitive-developmental theory
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
What is the MOST LIKELY behavioral outcome of exposing a female rhesus monkey to testosterone during its prenatal time of development?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
It will attempt to sexually "mount" male partners when it reaches sexual maturity.
Correct Answer: b.
It will attempt to sexually "mount" male partners when it reaches sexual maturity.
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In general, gender roles
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child
Correct Answer: b.
become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which of the following tends to be found at higher levels in males?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
confidence in use of computers
Correct Answer: b.
confidence in use of computers
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role development
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
depends on stagelike changes in thinking
Correct Answer: d.
depends on stagelike changes in thinking
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
Correct Answer: b.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The basic premise of gender schema theory is that children actively seek objects and/or activities that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
match their own-sex schemata
Correct Answer: b.
match their own-sex schemata
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Money and Ehrhardt's biosocial theory of gender typing suggests all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
fetal chromosomal differences (e.g., XX versus XY) are the most important factors in determining gender-role behavior
Correct Answer: c.
fetal chromosomal differences (e.g., XX versus XY) are the most important factors in determining gender-role behavior
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Gutmann's hypothesis regarding the "parental imperative" suggests that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
becoming parents pressures males to be more "masculine" and females to be more "feminine"
Correct Answer: a.
becoming parents pressures males to be more "masculine" and females to be more "feminine"
Question 17

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
According to Money and Ehrhardt's biosocial theory of gender-role development,
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Children begin acting like boys or girls once they acquire gender identity and constancy.
Correct Answer: a.
Several critical biological events set the stage for different social reactions to males and females.
Question 18

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Cyndi has just found out the results from a gender role test. According to the test, she has few female traits and few male traits. Given this score, Cyndi is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
androgynous sex-typed
Correct Answer: b.
undifferentiated
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
What childhood behavior did the authors of the text use as an analogy for the decline in sexual activity in old age?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
riding a bike
Correct Answer: a.
riding a bike
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Twin studies on sexual orientation show that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation
Correct Answer: a.
genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation
Question 21

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Adults are asked to interact with an unknown infant. Half of the adults are told that the infant is "Steve" and the other half of the adults are told that the infant is "Stacy." What are you likely to observe of these interactions?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
At such a young age, there are not likely to be any differences in how adults treat the infant in the two conditions.
Correct Answer: c.
Adults are likely to rate "Steve" as strong and brave and "Stacy" as soft and cuddly.
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Androgyny refers to individuals who are
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits
Correct Answer: c.
high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits
Question 23

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
With regard to biological differentiation of the sexes, which is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Hormones influence the development of the testes and ovaries.
Correct Answer: d.
External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception.
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Five-year-old Emeril loves watching cooking shows on television. Emeril's dad is very concerned that by watching these shows, Emeril will become feminine. Which type of theorist would be MOST LIKELY to agree with Emeril's dad's concern over the impact of television on gender role development?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
a social learning theorist
Correct Answer: a.
a social learning theorist
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender-role stereotypes
Correct Answer: a.
gender-role stereotypes

...

Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
Correct Answer: d.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Adults are asked to interact with an unknown infant. Half of the adults are told that the infant is "Steve" and the other half of the adults are told that the infant is "Stacy." What are you likely to observe of these interactions?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Adults are likely to rate "Steve" as strong and brave and "Stacy" as soft and cuddly.
Correct Answer: d.
Adults are likely to rate "Steve" as strong and brave and "Stacy" as soft and cuddly.
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research on reinforcement of sex-appropriate behavior indicates that
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys
Correct Answer: d.
fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
"Agency" is defined as the
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
central aspect of the masculine gender role
Correct Answer: d.
central aspect of the masculine gender role
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Cyndi has just found out the results from a gender role test. According to the test, she has few female traits and few male traits. Given this score, Cyndi is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
undifferentiated
Correct Answer: c.
undifferentiated
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Communality roles are designed to prepare someone to be
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
sensitive
Correct Answer: a.
sensitive
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves
Correct Answer: c.
are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Correct Answer: c.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
From the time they are born, twins Johnny (a boy) and Joannie (a girl) are treated diversely. For example, whenever Johnny plays with a truck his parents praise his behavior. Whenever Joannie shows an interest in a doll her parents praise her actions. A social learning theorist would likely argue that this ____ will likely lead to distinct gender roles for Johnny and Joannie.
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
differential reinforcement
Correct Answer: a.
differential reinforcement
Question 10

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
According to cognitive developmental theory, the initial phase of gender identity is established around age two or three, when a child
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
first begins to use the terms "boy" and "girl"
Correct Answer: c.
recognizes that they are a male or female
Question 11

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which is the BEST example of an agency aspect of gender?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
emotionality
Correct Answer: b.
dominance
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a male?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
XY
Correct Answer: d.
XY
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Some individuals inherit an XX chromosome pattern but are exposed prenatally to drugs that are converted to male hormones once in the body. These individuals are likely to
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
have masculinized genitalia and behave in more "masculine ways"
Correct Answer: c.
have masculinized genitalia and behave in more "masculine ways"
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Carl Jung's notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
androgyny shift
Correct Answer: c.
androgyny shift
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Based on research by Stoddart and Turiel, which two people would you expect to hold the most negative attitudes concerning the violation of gender roles (e.g., a boy wearing nail polish)?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
a five-year-old and a 13-year-old
Correct Answer: c.
a five-year-old and a 13-year-old
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Whose statement indicates an understanding of gender stability?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Tom, who says "Once a boy always a boy."
Correct Answer: b.
Tom, who says "Once a boy always a boy."
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a female?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
XX
Correct Answer: c.
XX
Question 18

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Jack and Jill. They make no bones about telling Jack that he should be an engineer, since men are good at math, and that Jill should be a nurse, since women are good at taking care of other people. Given the fact that male-female differences in math and nurturing are questionable, the Hill's message BEST reflects what your text calls a(n)
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
sex difference
Correct Answer: c.
gender-role stereotype
Question 19

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Compared to 50 years ago, adolescents in the United States are now
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
more likely to be homosexual
Correct Answer: b.
more likely to engage in sexual intercourse
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the BEST example of an in-group/out-group gender schema?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Boys can fight but girls should play nice.
Correct Answer: b.
Boys can fight but girls should play nice.
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
With regard to biological differentiation of the sexes, which is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception.
Correct Answer: c.
External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception.
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Oedipus is to Electra as
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
boy is to girl
Correct Answer: c.
boy is to girl
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research supports all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children
Correct Answer: a.
self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Audrey grows up in a family in which her father provides at-home day care and her mother is a construction worker. A social learning theorist would be MOST LIKELY to explain Audrey's unusual attitudes (i.e., she loves trucks and hates dolls) in terms of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
observational learning
Correct Answer: c.
observational learning
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
lack of a partner
Correct Answer: c.
lack of a partner

...

Observations of infants and infant sexuality suggest all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
they actively seek sexual contact with other infants
Correct Answer: c.
they actively seek sexual contact with other infants
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The Piagetian concept of ____ appears to be MOST directly linked to the acquisition of gender consistency.
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
concrete operational thought
Correct Answer: a.
concrete operational thought
Question 3

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
In the hypothetical country called Ozland, females drive trucks and males drive cars. This indicates that Ozland has
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
androgyny
Correct Answer: c.
gender roles
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
When discussing sex with his buddies, Hef says, "The key is to understand that normal guys want and need sex, whereas girls who want sex are immoral and corrupt." Hef's comments best exemplify the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
the double standard
Correct Answer: c.
the double standard
Question 5

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
According to psychoanalytic theory, gender-role development occurs primarily as a result of
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
observational learning
Correct Answer: b.
children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents
Question 6

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Gender schemata
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
involve behaviors, not expectations
Correct Answer: d.
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
Question 7

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Compared to 50 years ago, adolescents in the United States are now
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
more likely to be homosexual
Correct Answer: d.
more likely to engage in sexual intercourse
Question 8

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Research on children who are victims of sexual abuse has indicated that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
over 75 percent of victims engage in "sexualized behaviors" including public masturbation and extreme promiscuity
Correct Answer: c.
victims can experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder
Question 9

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
With regard to biological differentiation of the sexes, which is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
It is possible for a male (XY) fetus to develop a female internal reproductive system.
Correct Answer: d.
External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception.
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Communality roles are designed to prepare someone to be
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
sensitive
Correct Answer: d.
sensitive
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The process by which children become aware of the fact that they are either male or female and that there are different cultural expectations concerning the pattern of behavior for the two sexes is called
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender typing
Correct Answer: a.
gender typing
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Baron-Cohen claims that a man's tendency to systemize is the result of
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
having a male brain
Correct Answer: b.
having a male brain
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
Correct Answer: a.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
How would you demonstrate androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Correct Answer: d.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Question 15

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
When asked if it is OK for a boy to play with dolls, Geoffery says, "Absolutely not, it's a rule that only girls can play with dolls." Based on Damon's research on gender-roles and stereotypes, what age is Geoffery MOST LIKELY to be?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
eight-years-old
Correct Answer: a.
six-years-old
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the BEST example of a communality role in American society?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
caring for a sick child
Correct Answer: b.
caring for a sick child
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Women
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
tend to have a shorter sexual refractory period than men
Correct Answer: a.
tend to have a shorter sexual refractory period than men
Question 18

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
"Agency" is defined as the
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
desire for a sexual relationship with a parent
Correct Answer: b.
central aspect of the masculine gender role
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender identity
Correct Answer: a.
gender identity
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The most common criticism of Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency
Correct Answer: a.
children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Correct Answer: b.
In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50.
Question 22

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Through her mother's efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl. In the near future, Olive's mother will teach Olive about the kinds of behaviors expected of girls. This instruction is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
gender-role stereotyping
Correct Answer: c.
gender typing
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which of the following is TRUE regarding children's knowledge of sex and reproduction?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Children's level of understanding is linked to their cognitive development.
Correct Answer: b.
Children's level of understanding is linked to their cognitive development.
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
hormonal
Correct Answer: c.
hormonal
Question 25

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Research on individuals from the Dominican Republic who are raised as girls (due to the ambiguous genitalia), but become males following puberty has challenged the Money and Ehrhardt argument that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
genes play a key role in gender development
Correct Answer: d.
socialization during the first three years of life is critical

...

Cyndi has just found out the results from a gender role test. According to the test, she has few female traits and few male traits. Given this score, Cyndi is BEST classified as
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
androgynous sex-typed
Correct Answer: b.
undifferentiated
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
When discussing sex with his buddies, Hef says, "The key is to understand that normal guys want and need sex, whereas girls who want sex are immoral and corrupt." Hef's comments best exemplify the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
the double standard
Correct Answer: b.
the double standard
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
gender identity
Correct Answer: c.
gender identity
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Prior to the birth of their first child Ward and June have very strong gender role orientation. Ward, the father, is extremely masculine while June, the mother, is extremely feminine. According to the "parental imperative" what would you expect to happen to Ward and June's gender roles following the birth of their first son, Wally?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
There will be little change in their gender roles.
Correct Answer: b.
There will be little change in their gender roles.
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which would BEST fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in the child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Parents attribute their daughter's math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math.
Correct Answer: d.
Parents attribute their daughter's math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math.
Question 6

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
While Charlotte is growing up she is socialized into believing that a woman should stay home and take care of the children while men go off to work and "bring home the bacon." This message BEST reflects what your text refers to as a
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
gender-role stereotype
Correct Answer: d.
gender-role norm
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
"I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do." This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
cognitive-developmental theory
Correct Answer: b.
cognitive-developmental theory
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to psychoanalytic theory, gender-role development occurs primarily as a result of
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents
Correct Answer: d.
children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Each society generally has a set of expectations regarding the behaviors and traits that are considered appropriate for males as compared to females. These sets of expectations are
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
gender roles
Correct Answer: d.
gender roles
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which of the following tends to be found at higher levels in males?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
confidence in use of computers
Correct Answer: d.
confidence in use of computers
Question 11

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Most children clearly demonstrate basic gender identity by
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
2? to 3 years of age
Correct Answer: a.
2? to 3 years of age
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research on sexual orientation indicates that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
consistent, strong cross-sex interests in late childhood may predict later homosexual or bisexual orientation
Correct Answer: a.
consistent, strong cross-sex interests in late childhood may predict later homosexual or bisexual orientation
Question 13

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Recent research on sex differences suggests that girls are
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
more compliant than boys in all situations
Correct Answer: d.
more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In general, gender roles
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child
Correct Answer: d.
become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
According to the cognitive-developmental perspective of gender typing, which is the most mature understanding?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
understanding that gender is stable across situations
Correct Answer: c.
understanding that gender is stable across situations
Question 16

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
The key element of gender-role norms is that within a society they are viewed as
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
stereotypes
Correct Answer: b.
desirable characteristics
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Barry is a father who displays a sense of weak masculinity to his four-year-old son Gary. According to Freud, the MOST LIKELY impact of Barry's actions on Gary would be that Gary would
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
show similar patterns of weak masculinity in later life
Correct Answer: c.
show similar patterns of weak masculinity in later life
Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
gender-role stereotypes
Correct Answer: d.
gender-role stereotypes
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Recent research by Morrongiello and Hogg found that when asked to imagine their children misbehaving, moms reported that they felt ____ toward their sons and ____ toward their daughters.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
anger; disappointment
Correct Answer: b.
anger; disappointment
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation.
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
hormonal
Correct Answer: c.
hormonal
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
____ females have external genitalia that resemble those of a boy.
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Androgenized
Correct Answer: b.
Androgenized
Question 22

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which biological event directly results in the growth of a penis in a male fetus?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
receiving a Y chromosome at conception
Correct Answer: b.
secretion of testosterone by the testes
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
lack of a partner
Correct Answer: b.
lack of a partner
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In families where parents show clear patterns of differential reinforcement concerning sex-appropriate behavior, children tend to
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences
Correct Answer: d.
develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences
Question 25

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
Correct Answer: a.
their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together

...

Gender schemata
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
Correct Answer: b.
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
Question 2

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
identification
Correct Answer: b.
identification
Question 3

4 out of 4 points

Correct
"Agency" is defined as the
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
central aspect of the masculine gender role
Correct Answer: b.
central aspect of the masculine gender role
Question 4

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Spanky, Alfalfa, and the rest of the boys in the first grade class have decided that from now on boys will only play with boys and never with girls. This decision provides a nice example of the concept of
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender segregation
Correct Answer: a.
gender segregation
Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Androgyny refers to individuals who are
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits
Correct Answer: c.
high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits
Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research supports all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children
Correct Answer: d.
self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children
Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Gender stability is defined as understanding that
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
gender is stable across time
Correct Answer: a.
gender is stable across time
Question 8

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Correct Answer: d.
Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects.
Question 9

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In the hypothetical country called Ozland, females drive trucks and males drive cars. This indicates that Ozland has
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
gender roles
Correct Answer: b.
gender roles
Question 10

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which type of theorist would be most likely to argue that watching videos in which males are rewarded for sexual violence would directly lead to them engaging in violent sex acts in order to be manly?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
a social learning theorist
Correct Answer: c.
a social learning theorist
Question 11

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Which statement concerning toddlers' understanding of gender roles is TRUE?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
Females and males appear to understand gender-based activities at the same age.
Correct Answer: c.
Females appear to understand gender-based activities earlier than males.
Question 12

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research on individuals from the Dominican Republic who are raised as girls (due to the ambiguous genitalia), but become males following puberty has challenged the Money and Ehrhardt argument that
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
socialization during the first three years of life is critical
Correct Answer: b.
socialization during the first three years of life is critical
Question 13

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The Piagetian concept of ____ appears to be MOST directly linked to the acquisition of gender consistency.
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
concrete operational thought
Correct Answer: d.
concrete operational thought
Question 14

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Correct Answer: c.
A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
Question 15

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The defining element of gender-role stereotypes is that they are
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
largely inaccurate
Correct Answer: c.
largely inaccurate
Question 16

4 out of 4 points

Correct
If American children Nicholas (a boy) and Alexandra (a girl) are typical of other members of their sex, then you would predict that
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant.
Correct Answer: d.
Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant.
Question 17

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Recent research on sex differences suggests that girls are
Answer
Selected Answer: a.
more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers
Correct Answer: a.
more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers
Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
gender-role stereotypes
Correct Answer: b.
gender-role stereotypes
Question 19

4 out of 4 points

Correct
The impact of sexual abuse appears to be MOST severe when the abuse was a
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
frequent, long-term event involving a close relative
Correct Answer: b.
frequent, long-term event involving a close relative
Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Correct
How would you demonstrate androgyny?
Answer
Selected Answer: c.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Correct Answer: c.
Be both assertive and compassionate.
Question 21

4 out of 4 points

Correct
What childhood behavior did the authors of the text use as an analogy for the decline in sexual activity in old age?
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
riding a bike
Correct Answer: d.
riding a bike
Question 22

4 out of 4 points

Correct
In general, gender roles
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child
Correct Answer: b.
become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child
Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Research on gender-role stereotypes has shown that in the United States during the past few decades gender-role stereotypes have
Answer
Selected Answer: d.
changed slightly
Correct Answer: d.
changed slightly
Question 24

4 out of 4 points

Correct
Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a female?
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
XX
Correct Answer: b.
XX
Question 25

0 out of 4 points

Incorrect
Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes
Answer
Selected Answer: b.
result from biological differences between males and females
Correct Answer: d.
are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves

...

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set