the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
the central part of the Earth below the mantle
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly
The strong lower part of the Mantle between the Asthenosphere and the outer core
lower boundary of the crust
set of components or parts that function together to act as a whole.
crack in the center of a ridge
a system that can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings
A system that allows the exchange of energy, but not matter, between the system and its surroundings.
the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
underwater mountain range formed when two plates pull apart
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
The study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock,that relates to the reversal of Earth's magnetic poles; also the magnetic properties that rock gets during formation
all rocks with a magnetic field point north
all rocks with magnetic fields that point south
geomagnetic reversal time line
shows the pattern of normal and reversed polarity in rocks
the theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape
the boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
the boundary between two colliding tectonic plates
the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
short segments of a mid-ocean ridge that are connected by transform boundaries.
an area created when cooler, denser material sinks and the warmer material rises to the surface
the process in which new material at a ridge or rift pushes older material aside, moving the tectonic plates away from the ridge
occurs when enough of plate subducts at a convergent boundary that gravity can pull the rest of the plate under
areas of volcanic activities that result from plumes of hot solid material that have risen from deep inside earths mantle