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access time

Measurement of (1) the amount of time it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage medium or (2) the time required to deliver an item from memory to the processor

backup

Duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used in case the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed

CD-R

Multisession CD onto which users can record their own items, such as text, graphics, and audio. Each part of a CD-R can be written on only one time, though one part of the disc can be written at one time and another part at a later time. Once recorded, a CD-R can be read from as many times as necessary, but its contents cannot be erased. CD-R is short for compact disc-recordable

CD-R drive

Device that can read from CD-Rs, standard CD-ROMs, and usually audio CDs and can write to, or record, CD-Rs. Also called CD recorder 7.20

CD-ROM

Type of optical disc that uses laser technology to store data, instructions, and information. A CD-ROM can contain text, graphics, video, and audio. Manufacturers write, or record, the contents of standard CD-ROMs in a single session, and users only can read the contents, not erase or modify them. A typical CD-ROM can hold from 650 MB to 1 GB of data. CD-ROM is short for compact disc read-only memory

CD-ROM drive

Drive that can read CD-ROM discs and sometimes audio CDs

CD-RW

Erasable CD onto which users can write and rewrite data, instructions, and information multiple times. CD-RW is short for compact disc-rewritable

CD-RW drive

Drive that can read from CD-RWs, CD-Rs, standard CD-ROMs, and usually audio CDs and can write to, or record, CD-RWs

DVD+RAM

rewriteable DVD formats each with storage capacities up tp 4.7 GB per side

DVD+RW

rewriteable DVD formats each with storage capacities up tp 4.7 GB per side

DVD-ROM

Type of optical disc that can be erased and written to, or recorded on, more than 1,000 times. A DVD+RW is similar to a CD-RW, except it has storage capacities up to 3 GB per side. DVD+RW is short for DVD-rewriteable

DVD-ROM drive

Device that can read a DVD-ROM. Newer DVD-ROM drives also can read audio CDs, CD-ROMs, CD-Rs, and CD-RWs

DVD-RW

Type of optical disc that can be erased and written to, or recorded on, more than 1,000 times.

floppy disk

Portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic Mylar film with a magnetic coating enclosed in a square-shaped plastic shell. Also called diskette

formatting

Process of preparing a disk for reading and writing

hard disk

Type of storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that store data, instructions, and information. A hard disk stores data magnetically and is a read/write storage medium, meaning it can be read from and written to any number of times. Also called hard disk drive

microfiche

A small sheet of film, usually about 4 inches by 6 inches in size, on which microscopic images of documents are stored

microfilm

A roll of film, usually 100 to 215 feet long, on which microscopic images of documents are stored

RAID

a group of two or more integrated hard disks

storage device

Computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media

storage medium

The physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information, such as a floppy disk, Zip disk, hard disk, CD, DVD, tape, PC Card, or microfiche. Also called secondary storage

tape

Magnetically coated ribbon of plastic that is capable of storing large amounts of data and information at a low cost. Business and home users use tape most often for long-term storage and backup

allocation unit

The smallest unit of disk space that stores data, consisting of two to eight sectors on a single track on a hard disk. A single allocation unit, which also is called a cluster or a block, holds data from only one file

BD-R

you can write on the disc once and read or play it as many times as you would like

BD-RE

high-capacity rewriteable DVD formats

Blu-ray Disk-rom

has storage capacities of 100GB

burning

Writing data on an optical disc

cluster

The smallest unit of disk space that stores data, consisting of two to eight sectors on a single track on a hard disk. A single cluster, which also is called an allocation unit or a block, holds data from only one file

cylinder

The vertical section of a hard disk track that passes through all platters

density

The number of bits in an area on a storage medium

direct access

Type of data access in which the storage device is able to locate a particular data item or file immediately, without having to move consecutively through items stored in front of the desired data item or file. Also called random access

disk cache

Portion of memory the processor uses to store frequently accessed items, which improves disk access times

disk controller

Special-purpose chip and electronic circuits that control the transfer of data, instructions, and information between a disk and the system bus and other components in a computer. Sometimes called an interface

EIDE

Interface used in controllers that can support up to four hard disks at 137 GB per disk, transfer data at speeds up to 66 MBps, and provide connections for CD, DVD, and tape drives. EIDE controllers are one of the more widely used controllers for hard disks

fixed disk

Name sometimes given to the hard disk inside a system unit, because the disk is mounted in a drive bay and usually is not portable

form factor

The size of a hard disk platter

head crash

Type of hard disk failure that occurs when a read/write head touches the surface of a platter, usually resulting in a loss of data or sometimes loss of the entire drive

HD DVD-R

you can write on the disc once and read or play it as many times as you would like

HD DVD-RW

high-capacity rewriteable DVD formats

HD DVD-ROM

stands for high-density DVD-ROM, has storage capacities up to 60 GB

KBps

The number of kilobytes of data, instructions, and information that transfer to and from a device per second. KBps is short for kilobytes per second

LightScribe technology

works with specially coated optical discs, to etch lables directly on the disc

longitudinal recording

aligns the magnetic particles horizontally around the surface of the disk

magnetic disks

use magnetic particles to store items such as data, instructions, and information on disks surfaces

multi-session

Disc that can be written to more than once, allowing users to save additional data on the disc at a later time

optical disk

a type of storage media that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is written and reas by a laser

perpendicular recording

by contrast, hard disks align the magnetic particles vertically, or perpendicular to the disk's surface, making much greater storage capacities posssible.

random access

Type of data access in which the storage device is able to locate a particular data item or file immediately, without having to move consecutively through items stored in front of the desired data item or file. Also called direct access

SATA

the newest type of hard disk interface, uses serial signals to transfer data, instructions, and information.

sectors

The small arcs into which tracks on a disk are divided

sequential access

Type of data access in which the storage device reads or writes data consecutively. In order to locate a particular data item or file, the device has to move consecutively through items stored in front of the desired data item or file before reaching the file

single-session disk

Disc that is written to only once and cannot be written to again. Manufacturers typically produce a single-session disc by writing all items on the disc at one time, before distributing the disc to users

storage

Location in which data, instructions, and information are held for future use

track

Narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of a disk

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