China Test 2 Terms

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47 terms

Long March

October 1934-1935, Mao Zedong and his troops are forced to embark on a 6000+ mile march to escape the Nats. They make it out and reform and thus the CCP is saved. Mao is made undisputed leader.

War of Resistance

Japanese invade Manchuria 1937, Nats and Commies form united front to defeat them; in reality, CCP rebuilds and regains strength, Nats get worn out. Ends 1945 USA bomb.

Mass Line Strategy

developed by CCP and Mao during War of Resistance, would work to gain support of millions of peasants who would fight guerrilla warfare

Civil War

after Japan surrenders to Allies, Commies and nats scramble to get former occupied territory; there is fighting, eventually communists win and have a lot of support, in 1949 PLA marches into Beijing and Mao declares himself ruler

PLA

People's Liberation Army, the communists army during the civil war

October 1, 1949

when Mao Zedong declares that the People's Republic of China is established from atop Tianamen Gate.

Taiwan/December 8

this is when Chiang Kai-Shek and Guomindang flees to Taiwan in defeat 1949

Karl Marx

thought up communism/marxism, from Germany mid 1800s, intellectual

Marxism

dictatorship of the proteleriat; not bourgeoisie; would end dialectic process; one class

Communist Manifesto

marx's book where he described Marxism

Great Proleteriat Class

working class, would become rulers

Vladimir Lenin

expounded on Marxism, worked on how to take power, Russia early 1900s, led Russian revolution

Marxism-Leninism

lenin talked more about seizing power, said use a small group with support of proletariat, use any method available, seize everything and redistribute it, included peasants as well as factory workers

The ends justifies the means

meant do whatever it takes to get communism, even lying and killing is fine

Maoism

mao's take on communism; dealt with peasants, said a ton of peasants could take over too

Personality Cult

when a leader (mao for ex) tries to get the people to believe they're almost a god so they can stay in power even if they are lousy

Collectivization

land redistributed; peasants work together

First Five Year Plan

1953-1957 designed to develop heavy industries and create jobs; mediocre outcome

Great Leap Forward

Mao's effort to industrialize China quam celerrime, create communes, people make steel, but not enough food = famine and disaster 1958-59 or so

Communes

govt relocated people here, each 750,000 people: officials decide what everyone does

Backyard Furnaces

everyone makes steel: make backyard furnaces to make it in; steel lousy

Peng Dehuai

Minister of Defence, criticized Great Leap, Mao is mad, removes him from his post: his supporters rally behind him and then Mao has to start up the Cultural Revolution to get rid of these scum

Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution

began 1966, effort by Mao to get rid of rightists, uses red guards, millions harassed; tapers off early 70s, official end 1976

Red Guards

student radicals who went around and harassed rightists, destroying 4 olds

Four Olds

Old Ideas, Customs, Culture, Habits; mao wanted to get rid of them

Ten Lost Years

1966-1976; decade of harassment and disorder

Liu Shaoqi

Chinese leader who was denounced during cultural revolution by Mao for being a "capitalist roader"; Mao viewed him as a threat to power, died under harsh treatment in 1969

Zhou Enlai

Chinese leader who was important in the restructuring of society and economy, struggled for power with gang of four in early 70s, however Zhou died 1976, supported Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping

most powerful man in China late 70s-90s, leader in CCP before that, mao didn't like him but Zhou did, after Mao's death won power struggle, technically vice-chairman but really in charge, made ecomonic reforms

Jiang Qing

Mao's wife, member of gang of four

Quotes from Mao/Little Red Book

the little red book the red guards would carry around

Lin Biao

Chinese leader who was important in Civil War, Mao's designated successor, but died in a plane crash 1971 after a failed attempt to oust Mao, so he is considered one of counter-revolutionary parties during Cultural Revolution, other is Jiang Qiang

Gang of Four

Jiang Qing and 3 others, put on trial for causing excesses of Cultural Revolution, sentenced to death but commuted to life in prison

70/30

Deng's leadership said Mao was 70% good for China, 30% bad

Open Door Policy

Deng encouraged foreign contact, visited USA, Chinese now can study abroad etc, American tourists can come into China: outside knowledge and foreign investement

Special Economic Zones

Shenzen was the first in 1979, where there was more capitalism, foreign business: innovation stimulated, huge economic growths

Chinese-Style Socialism

what Deng called this new mixture of capitalism and communism

Four Modernizations

agriculture, industry, technology, defence: one of Deng's guiding slogans to his new economic rules

Four Cardinal Principles

retaining Socialist path, dictatorship of proletariat, leadership of Communist Party, and ideology of Marxism, Leninism, and Maoism: another of Deng's guiding slogans: what he wanted to do

Shenzen

first SEZ, on border of Hong Kong

Responsibility System

allowing workers to keep extra earnings, implemented by Deng

Zhao Ziyang

party secretary, said the protesters at tianamen had some points, but that it needed to be stopped, eventually recommends crackdown and it works

Goddess of Democracy

statue created during tianamen protests, made in only 4 days, like the statue of liberty, stood for democracy

Democracy Wall

long brick wall in Beijing, activists in democracy movement would post stuff on it, in 1978, but wall closed 1979

Hu Yaobang

Chinese leader with Deng, supported the reforms, when he died in 1989 students wanted him to be commemorated, day before his funeral students march on tianamen square, causing the protests

June 4-5, 1989

the bulk of the violence: whole deal with clearing square by 6 am, it is, then on the 5th in the morning the thing with the people coming up and then running and getting shot and coming back etc etc etc

People's Daily

a daily Chinese newspaper, did a good job reporting on cultural revolution, everything has to be approved by government through, so it is like the newspaper of the CCP

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