In Kelo v. City of New London, the Supreme Court held that the government can seize property
for public use./ to promote economic development in distressed communities
Most states responded to the Kelp decision by passing laws that
D) restricted the power of local governments.
The concept of separate, sovereign national and state governments is known as
Which of the following countries does not have a federal system of government?
B) Great Britain
Which of the following allows national governments the right to alter or even abolish local government?
A unitary system
Ukraine, formerly one of the Soviet republics, had its own local unit of government, yet the Soviet Union was not considered a federal system. This is because, in the former Soviet Union,
A) local governments were not independent of the central government.
One of the reasons that our local governments are independent of the national government is
C) the commitment of Americans to the ideal of local government.
In the United States, programs such as the interstate highway system and services to the unemployed are most accurately considered
E) state functions, although the federal government seeks to regulate them.
Which of the following systems of government would be most likely to appeal to those in the United States who wish to implement liberal policies in the nation but who encounter resistance from conservative state legislatures?
An interest group with a strong following in only one region of the country would have the best chance to achieve its goals under what type of system?
A unitary form of government is most likely to appear preferable in the view of
A) liberal U.S. senators facing conservative state legislatures.
Under a unitary system of government, which of the following political outcomes would be highly unlikely?
C) Senators from a particular region of the country blocking the passage of major civil rights legislation
Perhaps the most obvious effect of federalism in the United States has been to
E) mobilize political activity.
The cost of political participation to the average U.S. citizen is less than that to the average French citizen because, in the United States,
A) more small, political constituencies are found than in France.
For the Founders, federalism was a device to
A) protect liberty.
Madison's description of federalism in Federalist No. 46 suggests there should be little concern over conflicts between the federal and state governments because
D) they are different agents with different powers.
Which of the following statements about the federal system adopted at the Constitutional Convention is most accurate?
C) It granted supreme authority to neither national nor state government.
The Founders did not include in the U.S. Constitution an explicit statement of state powers but added it later in the
C) Tenth Amendment.
The government in the South during the Civil War was called a confederacy. A true confederacy differs from the federalist system of the United States in that it
A) grants more sovereignty to the individual states.
A statement specific to state powers was not part of the original U.S. Constitution because
E) it was assumed to be obvious.
Just what sort of commerce Congress could regulate between the states was not spelled out in the U.S. Constitution because
A) no consensus existed.
Applying the principles of Thomas Jefferson to current political issues would probably dispose one to
A) favor the decentralization of government power.
Which statement best summarizes Madison's view of federalism?
C) He was first an ardent supporter of national supremacy, then of states' rights.
In Federalist No. 45, Madison describes the powers of state governments as
B) numerous and indefinite.
The Civil War settled one part of the issue of national supremacy versus states' rights, namely, that
C) the national government derives its sovereignty from the people.
The early chief justice whose decisions generally gave the broadest possible sweep to federal powers was
C) John Marshall.
An important outcome of Marshall's ruling in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) was to
E) confirm the use of the necessary and proper clause by the federal government in the exercise of the constitutional powers granted to Congress.
A central premise in Marshall's analysis of federalism was that the government of the United States was established by
C) the people.
The doctrine of nullification refers to
B) the claimed authority of the states to declare a federal law void for violating the U.S. Constitution.
During the battle over slavery, the case for nullification was forcefully presented by
D) John C. Calhoun.
The doctrine of dual federalism grew out of a protracted debate on the subject of
Initially, it was supposed that
A) the federal government could regulate interstate commerce.
Initially, the states were supposed to have the power to regulate commerce related to
At one point, the Supreme Court attempted to define the end point of transportation and interstate commerce by focusing on
A) original packaging.
The interstate commerce that the federal government can regulate is now interpreted to include
A) almost any kind of economic activity.
According to the text, the Supreme Court has generally excluded ________ from many of the restrictions addressed in commerce clause cases.
A) baseball players
The text says that it would be a mistake to conclude that the doctrine of dual federalism is
A) entirely dead.
In U.S. v. Lopez (1995), the Supreme Court ruled that Congress overstepped its power to regulate commerce by prohibiting ________ in a school zone.
The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 was conspicuous because it allowed women who were the victims of gender-based violence to
D) sue in federal court.
In U.S. v. Morrison, the Supreme Court ruled that violence against women
B) did not substantially affect interstate commerce.
In ruling that the government cannot require local police to conduct background checks on all gun purchases, the Court held that to do so would be a violation of the __________ Amendment.
The text suggests that the Supreme Court has given "new life" to the ________ Amendment.
Under their police powers, states can enact and enforce all of the following except
E) the regulation of interstate commerce.
Which of the following statements regarding state constitutions is incorrect?
E) None of the above
This is a procedure that enables voters to reject a measure adopted by the legislature.
This procedure, which is in effect in about one-third of the states, permits voters to remove an elected official from office.
Which statement regarding states is incorrect?
A) Their existence is not guaranteed by the Constitution.
The first form of grant-in-aid to the states made by the federal government to the state governments was that of
E) land grants.
According to the text, the grant-in-aid system grew rapidly because it helped state and local officials resolve what dilemma?
A) How to get federal money into state hands without violating the U.S. Constitution
Which of the following was not one of the reasons federal grants were attractive to state officials?
B) Passage of the Fifteenth Amendment
Federalism in the United States means that when Washington wants to send money to one state or congressional district it must
B) send money to many states and districts.
Federal officials' perceptions of national needs came to dominate the allocation of federal grants in the
E) 1960s and 1970s.
In the 1960s and 1970s, federal grants to states were increasingly based on
D) what federal officials perceived to be national needs.
The term intergovernmental lobby is used in the text to refer to lobbying activities by
A) state and local officials at the national government.
An example of an intergovernmental lobby would be a lobby comprising
A) local police chiefs.
A categorical grant is a transfer of federal funds designed for
E) specific purposes.
Categorical grants typically require that a state or locality
A) provide matching funds.
A block grant is essentially a
B) a grant that covers a broad area and provides states with choices for spending..
Federal grants over which local officials have wide discretion are called
D) revenue-sharing funds.
Revenue sharing features distribution of funds based on
C) a statistical formula controlling for such things as population and local tax effort.
Block grants were designed to remedy a common criticism of categorical grants, namely,
C) the difficulty of adapting them to local needs.
According to the text, both revenue sharing and block grants have enjoyed only marginal success, in part because
A) the federal government steadily increased the number of strings attached to such grants.
One reason why revenue sharing has proved unsuccessful as a means of distributing federal money to local governments is that it
A) lacks strong local political support.
What types of federal funds are most likely to be critical for an agency that depends on the federal government for its existence?
A) Categorical grants
Categorical grants are supervised by
C) special committees of Congress.
The type of locally distributed federal money that would be most affected by changes in population and distribution formulas is
C) revenue sharing.
To qualify for certain federal highway funds, states must allow drivers to make a legal right-hand turn after stopping at a red light. This requirement by the federal government is known as a
C) condition of aid.
When a locality is required by federal law to do something, regardless of whether it receives federal funding for that purpose, this duty is called a
The difference between a mandate and a condition of aid is that
E) with a mandate it makes no difference who is paying the costs of a program.
Which of the following statements about mandates is not true?
C) They are tied to specific federal grants.
Judges have ordered Massachusetts to change the way it hires fire fighters, even though the state does not receive aid from the federal government for fire fighting. Such an order is referred to as a
Most federal mandates concern
C) civil rights./the enviroment
A 2006 study found that the highest number of unfunded mandates concerned
D) the environment.
The text suggests that we might expect to find more mandates in policy areas where the government
A) spends less.
Federal courts have fueled the growth of mandates by litigation involving
E) All of the above
Why do members of Congress who represent the interests of localities to the federal government pass laws that create so many problems for the mayors and governors of these localities?
E) Because members of Congress often represent different constituencies from the same localities
When Republicans took control of Congress in 1994, the first key issue in their drive to reduce federal spending was
The Republican effort to pass on to the states many federal functions is known as
The increased role of nonprofit organizations and private groups in policy-making is known as
E) third-order devolution.
The flow of power and money from the states to local governments is known as
D) second-order devolution.