results from twin adoption studies on alcoholism
higher concordace rates for alcohol depedence were found in MZ twins vs DZ twins, both male & female
The offspring of alcoholic parents who are reared by nonalcoholic adoptive parents are more likely than people in the general population to develop drinking problems of their own.
manner in which genetic and envionmental events combie proably differs from one type of alcoholism to another
reinforcing properties of drugs and alcohol
Dopamine and Reward pathway »People may become dependent on psychoactive drugs because they stimulate areas of the brain that are known as "reward pathways."
• Medial forebrain bundle
» This may be a "final common denominator"
Natural rewards like food and sex increase dopamine in "mesolimbic dopamine pathway"
• Endorphins - endogenous endorphins, short chains of amino acids, or
» Appear to be important in the activities associated with systems that control pain, emotion, stress, and reward.
- It is theorized that alcoholism is associated with activation of this system in response to alcohol.
appear to be impt in activities associated with systems that control pain, emotion, stress, and reward
some theorists associate alcoholism with exaggerated activation of the endogenous opiooid system in response to alcohol stimulation
Expectations About Drug Effects
- Longitudinal studies: adolescents who are just beginning to experiment with alcohol and who initially have the most positive expectations about the effects of alcohol go on to consume greater amounts of alcoholic beverages.
- Expectations play a role in the onset of the problem
rather than being consequences of heavy drinking.
• Substance abuse disorders are a huge strain on society
abstinence violation effect; relapse prevention view
the guilt and perceived loss of control that the person feels whenever he/she uses drugs or drinks alcohol. relapse prevention teaches patients to expect occasional slips and to look at them as temporary rather than total and permanent Edit
treatment: aversive therapy
• Aversive Treatment
- Drugs that make the ingestion of abused substances extremely unpleasant
- Examples include antabuse for alcoholism and silver nitrate for nicotine addiction
• Efficacy of Biological Treatment
- Such treatments are generally not effective when used alone
SSRI's are also used for alcoholism
self help groups and AA
• Self-Help Groups and Alcoholics Anonymous
• The original12-step program
complete abstinence is the goal
• Difficult to evaluate its efficacy.
- Long-term follow-up difficult and you can't use traditional clinical methods of research; early dropout is common
• Appears to help people, it is not clear how it helps, or why
could be b/c its a stable social network that discourages rather than encourages use of drugs