Endocrinology

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Endocrine glands synthesize and secrete chemical substances called _______ directly into the circulatory system.

Endocrine glands synthesize and secrete chemical substances called hormones directly into the circulatory system.

Gall bladder is an _______ gland which secret substances that are transported by ducts.

Gall bladder is an exocrine gland which secret substances that are transported by ducts.

10 glands in animals

Pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes/ ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, and thymus

_______ _______ are situated on top of the kidneys and consist of the _______ ________ and the ________ _________.

Adrenal glands are situated on top of the kidneys and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.

In response to stress, _______ (adrenocorticotropic hormone) which is produced by the ________ ________, stimulates the _______ _______ to produce more than two dozen different steroid hormones, collectively known as adrenocortical steroids, or simply ____________.

In response to stress, ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) which is produced by the anterior pituary, stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce more than two dozen different steroid hormones, collectively known as adrenocortical steroids, or simply corticosteroids.

These steroid hormones such as cortisol and cortisone raise blood glucose levels by promoting protein breakdown and gluconeogenesis and decreasing protein synthesis. They release amino acids from skeletal muscle as well as lipids from adipose tissue.

Glucocorticoids

Mineralocorticoids, particularly ________, regulate plasma levels of sodium and potassium and, consequently, the total extracellular water volume. __________ causes active reabsorption of sodium and passive reabsorption of water in the nephron. This results in an _______ in both BV and BP.

Mineralocorticoids, particularly aldosterone, regulate plasma levels of sodium and potassium and, consequently, the total extracellular water volume. Aldosterone causes active reabsorption of sodium and passive reabsorption of water in the nephron. This results in an increase in both BV and BP.

Excess production of aldosterone results in excess retention of water with resulting ________.

Excess production of aldosterone results in excess retention of water with resulting hypertension.

The mineralocorticoids are stimulated by _________ and inhibited by ______.

The mineralocorticoids are stimulated by angiotensin II and inhibited by ANP.

In both men and women, adrenal cortex secretes small quantities of cortical sex hormoes such as...

Androgens

Cortisol, cortisone, aldosterone, androgen...

Adrenal cortex

epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

Adrenal medulla

This hormone increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, causing an increase in blood glucose levels and an increase in the basal metabolic rate.

Epinephrine

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine is stimulated by ________ ________ __________ during ______ _________ ___________.

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine is stimulated by sympathetic preganglionic fibers during sympathetic nervous stimulation.

The ____________ synthesizes both direct hormones, which directly stimulate their target organs, and tropic hormones, which stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland synthesizes both direct hormones, which directly stimulate their target organs, and tropic hormones, which stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones.

The hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary gland are regulated by __________.

The hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary gland are regulated by hypothalamus.

GH and prolactin

Direct hormones

ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, MSH, and endorphins

Tropic hormones

GH

Growth hormone/ somatotropin

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

LH

Luteinizing hormone

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

MSH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

ACTH stimulates the _____________ to synthesize and secret ____________.

ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secret glucocorticoids

TSH stimulates the ____________ to synthesize and release ______________, including thyroxin.

TSH stimulates the thyroid to synthesize and release thyroid hormones, including thyroxin.

In women, LH stimulates ________ and formation of the corpus luteum, and regulates _________ secretion.

In women, LH stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum, and regulates progesterone secretion.

In men, LH stimulates the interstitial cells of the _____ to synthesize ___________.

In men, LH stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to synthesize testosterone.

In women, FSH causes _________ of __________ that begin secreting estrogen.

In women, FSH causes maturation of ovarian follicles that begin secreting estrogen.

In men, FSH stimulates ________ of _____________ that produce sperms.

In men, FSH stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules that produce sperms.

GH, prolactin, ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, MSH, and endorphins are synthesized and secreted by...

Anterior pituitary gland

Oxytocin and ADH are released by...

Posterior pituitary gland

The posterior pituitary gland synthesizes hormones.

No. It only stores and releases the peptide hormones which are produced by the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus.

Hormone secretion of the posterior pituitary is stimulated by _______________ descending from the ___________.

Hormone secretion of the posterior pituitary is stimulated by action potentials descending from the hypothalamus.

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone/ vasopressin

____ increases the permeability of the nephron's collecting duct to water, therby promoting water reabsorption and increasing BV and BP.

ADH increases the permeability of the nephron's collecting duct to water, therby promoting water reabsorption and increasing BV and BP.

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