the number of recorded domestic violence related injuries for men published by the U.S. Department of Justice in 1997
Garrison & Pate 1977
interpersonal power theory stipulates that one person perceives the other as having power over their behavior
McNeely & Robinson 1987 & Steinmetz
Battered Husband Syndrome linked to lack of power in the relationship
Adults learn abusive and violent behavior by observing their parents in violent conflicts at home.
Roy 1977, Pagellow 1979 & Carlson 1977
The psychological perspective attributes personality disorders and as the root cause of battering
Putting her in fear by using looks, actions, gestures, loud voice, smashing things, destroying her property.
Putting him/her down or making him/her feel bad about himself/herself, calling him/her names. Making him/her think he/she is crazy. Playing mind games.
Trying to keep him/her from getting or keeping a job. Making him/her ask for money, giving him/her an allowance, or talking his/her money.
Making him/her do sexual things against his/her will. Physically attacking the sexual parts of his/her body. Treating him/her like a sex object.
Making him/her feel guilty about the children, using the children to give messages, using visitation as a way to harass him/her.
Making and/or carrying out threats to do something to hurt him/her emotionally, threaten to take the children, commit suicide, or report her to welfare.
Using Male Privilege-
Treating her like a servant. Making all the "big" decisions. Acting like the "master of the castle."
Negotiation and Fairness
Seeking mutually satisfying resolutions to conflict - accepting change - being willing to comprise.
Non Threating Behavior
Talking and acting so that he/she feels safe and comfortable expressing him/herself and doing things.
Listening to him/her non-judgmentally, being emotionally affirming and understanding, valuing opinions.
Trust and Support
Supporting his/her goals in life, respecting his/her right to her own feelings, friends, activities and opinions.
Honesty and Accountability
Accepting responsibility for self, acknowledging past use of violence, admitting being wrong, communicating openly and truthfully.
Sharing parental responsibilities, being a positive non-violent role model for the children.
Mutually agreeing on a fair distribution of work, making family decisions together.