Psychology Unit 3 Cognition Chapter 6 Memory

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By DeVine, M. L. Based on the textbook by Hinrichs, B. H. (2007) "The Science of Psychology," Minneapolis, Minnesota: Ellipse Publishing Co.

Luria, Alexander

Russian psychologist. His patient was Shereshevski who had unlimited ability remember details and this interfered with Shereshevski's attention.

amygdala

Greek for "almond," a brain area located at the end of the hippocampus that is a center for emotions, such as fear and anger

anterograde amnesia

When a person has damage to the hippocampus or surrounding regions of the medial temporal lobe. Unable to form new memory engrams. However, they have all previously stored memories.

Aplysia

Marine mollusk studied by Eric Kandel, who studied the ganglia isolated from mollusk for simple forms of learning such as habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning.

attention

Allows our brains to focus. (1) This system first acts as a filter on certain incoming signals, and then (2) second acts as a mechanism of storing information for a short period of time so the brain can perform mental acts, such as planning, thinking, reasoning, and so on

autobiographical memory

The storehouse of episodes and one's life that are connected to time and place. Also called episodic memory.

automaticity

Refers to the control of our mental life and behaviors by stimuli in our environment without our knowledge or awareness of such control - nonconscious brain processes that control behavior.

backward masking

Used in psychology when a stimulus blocks awareness of another stimulus that came a split second before.

Milner, Brenda

Studied the inability of H. M. to form new memory engrams. In 1997, inducted into the Canadian medical Hall of Fame.

cell assemblies

Theoretical neural networks proposed in 1949 by Donald Hebb

cerebellum

The part of the brain attached to the back of the brainstem. Its main job is to control coordinated body movements.

chunking

The meaningful bits of items in short-term memory, such as UCLA. Using this proccess, many more than seven items can fit into short-term memory.

cognitive reserve

People with more education and those who use mental skills in their leisure time have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Using the brain seems to build up a reserve capacity for learning and memory.

cognitive science

A science of mental processes such as (1) perception, (2) attention, (3) memory, and (4) problem solving.

consolidation

The physiological process by which memories are stored in the brain.

CREB gene

A gene that influences the LTP process, typically by influencing the NMDA receptor.

decay

The process by which memories fade away over time.

declarative memory

A kind of "conscious" or "aware" memories; what most people call memory. Also called explicit memory.

deep processing

Mnemonic devices are part of what psychologist call this. If you simply go over and over some material (maintenance rehearsal), that information would be stored in a shallow way, difficult to retrieve, and easy to forget

depth of processing

If you process information this way, the better you will later remember it and understand it. It is obtained by thinking through material and rich in various ways. When memorizing information the more mental operations you use (the more thinking and associating), and the more complex they are, the better you will remember the material.

displacement

The process of dislodging items from short-term memory as new information is added. A defense mechanism in which a person's unconscious wishes are displaced to a dream or another person.

dissociative amnesia

A form of repression, a blocking of memory retrieval, that occurs on a person has experienced a psychological shock.

Donald Hebb

In 1949, psychologist Donald Hebb theorized that memory must be stored in what he called cell assemblies. Cell assemblies are what we call neural networks

echoic memory

The type of sensory memory in which auditory information stored for a brief moment.

eidetic imagery

The rare ability, sometimes called photographic memory, in which a person can recall visual information in extreme detail.

elaborative rehearsal

Connecting new information in different ways to many different ideas that are already stored will help make the new material be deeper, easier to retrieve, and less likely to be forgotten. If you study to remember, you will forget. If you study to understand, you will remember.

Loftus, Elizabeth

In the forefront of the view that false memories are common and easily planted in the minds of unsuspecting people.

encoding

The first step in memory in which items get into the brain; dependent upon paying attention.

engram

The physiological change in the brain that represents a memory; a neural network.

episodic memory

The storehouse of episodes and one's life that are connected to time and place. Also called autobiographical memory.

Kandel, Eric

One of three brain scientists who won the Noble prize in 2000 for the research on the physiology of neural connections

false memories

Memories that a person believes are correct, but were implanted and are false.

flashbulb memory

A memory of an event that was surprising and consequential, such as an assassination or a major disaster. Such a memory sticks in the mind very vividly and for a long time, almost like a photograph. Examples: World Trade Center terrorist disaster 9-11-01, or your wedding day, or the collapse of the I-35 W bridge

forgetting curve

A sloping pattern that looks for a much liked extinction curve. Ebbinghaus discovered that memory fell off (swoops down) rapidly immediately after learning but then gradually subsided, and almost leveled off.

Sperling, George

Studied iconic memory. Showed letters on the screen for 1/20 second. Average number of letters recalled - about 4 of the letters

grounded cognition

The latest interest of cognitive psychologists. Connects the cognitive modality to other modalities, such as behavior, emotions, perception, and body states. Also called embodied cognition.

Ebbinghaus, Herman

The first to scientifically study forgetting. He used himself as a subject, learned & relearned the list of nonsense syllables (CVCs) and graphed his saving scores

hippocampus

Greek for "seahorse," this part of the brain bends around the inside of the temporal lobe. An important region for the formation and storage of conscious memories.

iconic memory

The type of sensory memory in which visual information is stored for a brief moment.

implicit memory

Another term for procedural memory, or sometimes used to mean memories that are unconscious.

inattentional blindness

A person will be blind to something that he or she is not paying attention to, even if it is right in front of his or her face.

interference

Details of events that happened years ago cannot be recalled because those brain cells are busy with new things. Typically the reason that information is lost from long-term memory

Tsien, Joe

From Princeton University. He was able to genetically engineer mice so that their NMDA receptors would stay open just a bit longer than normal, allowing calcium ions to enter receiving neurons for a longer period of time than is typical, thereby strengthening the synaptic connections between cells

Lashley, Karl

Neural psychologist who is best known for attempts to find the precise location of memory in the brain. In his research, he used laboratory rats in an attempt to find the precise location of a memory engram in the rat's brains.

kinase

A protein involved in the physiological changes that occur in the brain during learning.

knockout mice

Genetically altered mice missing a certain gene; used to determine the functions of the genes.

learning styles

People differ in their abilities with different modalities, such as vision, hearing, and touch. All learners should be taught via the content's best modality.

long-term depression (LTD)

A physiological event in the brain that weakens the connections between brain cells.

long-term memory

The memory storage system that includes information that has been stored relatively permanently.

long-term potentiation (LTP)

A physiological event in the brain that strengthens the connections between brain cells.

maintenance rehearsal

Going over information to again and again. It helps to maintain it in memory, changes the involved brain cells and synapses, thus strengthening the memory. Eventually a change that occurs in the structure of the synapses that makes a network of cells relatively permanent.

method of loci

A nmemonic device in which places are used as triggers for memories

neural network

A system of brain cells that act together enough fashion to produce problem solving. Neural networks as a common model for thinking about computer software, as well as a model for understanding how the brain creates cognitive states.

NMDA receptor

A chemical receptor in the hippocampus involved in the physiology of learning and memory.

nonsense syllables

An invention by an Ebbinghaus to use in his research: hundreds of consonant vowel consonant combinations

one is a bun

A simple example of a pegword system. Take each digit from 1 to 10 and associate a word with each: one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, etc. Memorize these pegwords and when you want to learn a list of things, simply associate each thing with the appropriate pegwords.

Papez circuit

A brain pathway that is involved in memory starting in the hippocampus, moving through the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, and then back to the hippocampus.

patient H. M.

In 1954, in Montréal, a man with epilepsy underwent a brain operation to remove the abnormal hippocampi in both hemispheres causing his seizures. The patient, who is now known in psychological literature by his initials, H. M. Following his recovery, H. M. no longer was able to retain information in memory. He could not form any new memory engrams. He still had his OLD memories, that is, the engrams that had formed in his brain before his surgery were still in place. Even with no medial temporal lobes (no hippocampi) one can store some declarative (conscious) memories, and acquire new semantic (fact) knowledge, at least temporarily, when new knowledge can be anchored to mental representations established before surgery.

patient R. B.

Following heart surgery in 1978, R. B. developed a hippocampal injury due to lack of oxygen to his brain. R. B. lived 5 years after his surgery. Brain exam after his death a lesion on both sides of the hippocampus was the only abnormality. His only cognitive deficit was the brain damage limited only to the hippocampus is sufficient to cause significant memory problems

pegword method

The mnemonic device in which certain words are used as association "pegs" for new information to be remembered.

perception

The act of interpreting, or giving meaning to, our sensory experiences. Our brains receive signals from her eyes, ears, mouth, nose, skin, muscles, and other parts of our bodies. These are known as sensations. These signals come to the brain as electrical and chemical energy. Sensations are then interpreted, organize, and given meaning by our brains. This is the process of perception.

planaria

Flatworms trained by James McConnell to run mazes. Because these flat worms can regenerate body parts, he cut them in half to see if the head or the tail would remember how to run the maze--they both did. Because these worms are cannibals, he even chopped them up and fed them to other worms to see if memory would transfer chemically. He claimed it did.

mnemonic

Way to transfer information from short-term memory to long-term memory, which is more efficient. Connecting the new information with things with something already in long-term storage. The retrieval is faster and easier.

prefrontal cortex

The anterior part of the frontal lobe. Scientists have speculated that this part plays a central role in working memory and serves as a store of short-term memory.

primacy effect

The fact that things at the beginning of a list are the first ones to get into the brain and therefore have an advantage in being recalled.

priming

A physiological event that happens that is synapse when a signal passes in which the cells change in such a way as to make it a little easier for a signal to pass again.

proactive interference

A disruption of long-term memory when something learned in the past "moves forward" to interfere with the learning of the new material.

problem solving

A part of learning - classical and operant conditioning. It involves other aspects of cognition such as perception, attention, memory, concept formation, language, logic, organizing principles, reasoning, creativity, and more.

procedural memory

A kind of "body" memory in which one remembers body movements, such as typing, or reactions to stimuli. Also called implicit memory or nondeclarative memory.

que dependent

External stimuli dependent

qued recall

A type of memory retrieval that gives you clues to help you retrieve the information from the brain. The queue narrows the search

recall, free

A type of memory retrieval that requires finding something in memory without any help - you must freely recall it from memory.

recency effect

The fact that things at the end of the list have nothing after them to interfere with them and therefore have advantage in being recalled.

recognition

A type of memory retrieval that requires recognizing information stored in memory.

repression

A major defense mechanism proposed by Freud in which unpleasant ideas and thoughts are pushed out of awareness and into the unconscious mind.

retrieval

The final step of the memory process. It gets informatin out of storage when you need it.

retroactive interference

A destruction of long-term memory when something learned recently "moves backwards" to interfere with the retrieval of previously learned material.

retrograde amnesia

Memory loss for things that happened in the immediate PAST caused by a blow to the head.

semantic memory

Memory of general facts; information about the general world, facts that are not dependent on personal experience.

sensory memory

The very brief memory that is stored in our sensory systems when we sense something and that fades within a split second.

serial position effect

The fact that when learning things in a particular order it is much easier to recall things from the beginning or end of the list them from the middle.

short-term memory

Some memory storage system that holds things in mind and that is limited to about seven chunks for about 30 seconds.

smart mice

Mice genetically engineered by Joe Tsien. NMDA receptors stayed open longer. Allowed calcium ions to enter receiving neurons for a longer period of time, thereby strengthening the synaptic connections between cells

spacing effect

The more you space out your studying, the longer you retain the information. In order to become perfect at something You need sustained practice, regular, ongoing practice over a long period, with breaks in between.

state dependent

The state that were are in when we encode something is also encoded. Memory that is triggered by a similarly perceived situation.

testing effect

People who do nothing other than take the memory test will do better every membrane that material later

The Magic Number Seven, plus or minus 2

On the average, short-term memory will hold only about seven bits of information. Most people can only hold five to nine items in their short-term memory at one time. If they try to remember more than that, they will often forget the "middle" items.

tip-of-the-tongue (TOT)

This is one you can almost think of a word but it is just out of reach of your retrieval. This occurs when your brain has accessed the word but for some reason cannot retrieve the sound information for that word.

working memory

Holding things in mind; thinking about something.

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