← NB microbiology Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All allergy (hypersensitivity) an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance (allergen) that does not normally cause a reaction antagonism mutual opposition or contrary action. The inhibition of one bacterial organism by another. antibody glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen. also known as immunoglobulin antigen a foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it antisepsis the prevention of sepsis by preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative microorganism attenuation dilution of weakening of virulence of a microorganism, reducing, or abolishing pathogenicity autotrophic bacteria self-nourishing bacteria that are capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds. Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide. Bacillus (pl. Bacilli) any rod shaped microorganism bacteremia the presence of viable bacteria in the blood stream bacteria microscopic unicellular organisms having no nuclear membrane, devoid of chlorophyll, which reproduce by binary fission bacterial colony a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism bactericide an agent that destroys bacteria buy not necessarily their spores. binary fission a method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which the cell splits into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual. biological vector an arthropod vector in which the disease-causing organism multiplies or develops withing the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual Bleaches (hypochlorites) hypochlorites capsule the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria, helps to protect against phagocytosis chlamydia a large group of nonmotile, gram-negative intracellular parasites Coccus (pl. cocci) a type of bacteria that is spherical or ovoid in form commensalism the symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains benefit such as protection or nourishment communicable a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another contamination the act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance diplobacilli a double bacillus, two being linked end to end to each other diplococcus a genus of bacteria that are gram-positive organisms occurring in pairs. Also called streptococcus drug-fast resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of drug or drugs disinfectant a chemical or physical agent that kills disease-causing microorganisms - generally used on inanimate objects disinfection the destruction of infectious agents by chemical or physical means directly applied to an inanimate object endemic disease that occurs continuously in a particular region but has low mortality. endogenous infection produced or arising from within a cell or organism endospores a thick-walled spore within a bacterium endotoxin bacterial toxin confined within the body of a bacterium freed only when the bacterium is broken down, found only in gram-negative bacteria facultative aerobe a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live an grow in the presence of oxygen facultative anaerobe an organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence facultative saprophyte prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions Epidemic appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area exogenous infection orginating outside an organ or part exotoxin a toxin produced by a microorganism and excreted into its surrounding medium, generally protein in nature facultative bacteria having the cpacity to do something athat is not compulsory, in particular having the ability to live or adapt to certain conditions focal infection one in which the organism are originally confine to one area but enter teh blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of the body fomite any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted fungus (pl. fungi) a group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicelluar organisms, lacking chlorophyll usually bearing spores and often filamentous fungicide an agent that kills fungi and their spores general infection an infection that becomes systemic germicide a substance that destroy microorganisms heterotrophic bacteria organisms that require complex organic food from a carbon source in order to grow and develop hypersensitivity (allergy) an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction indigenous flora plant life occurring or adapted for living in specific environment infection the state or condition in which the body or a part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects insecticide a substance that kills insects iodophores a compound consisting of iodine combined with a carrier, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, often used as a preoperative skin disinfectant larvacide a substance that kills insect larva local infection infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there maximum temperature temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place mechanical vector a living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by carrying a disease agent on it external body parts or surface mesophile bacteria that prefers moderate temperature and develops best at temperatures between 25 C and 40 C microaerophilic a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen microbiology scientific study of microorganism and their effect on other living organisms minimum temperature temperature below which bacterial groth wil not take place mixed infection infection caused by two or more organism mutualism a relationship in which organisms of two different species live in close association, to the mutual benefit of each mycology a branch of science concerned with the study of fungi mycoplasmas bacteria of the mycoplasma genus that are found in humans, most having no cell wall; the smallest free living organisms presently known, being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria non-symbiotic organisms that are free living and relationship are not required for survival opportunist an organism that exist as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions pandemic a disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time to may different parts of the world parasitism an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits pathogenicity the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease primary infection an original infection from which a second on originates prion small proteinaceous infectious agents (particles) which almost certainly do not have a nucleic acid genome and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids. Prion disease are often called spongiform encepholopathies protozoa unicellular organisms which are the lowest forms of animal life protozoology science that deals with the study of protozoa psychrophile bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temperatures between 0 c and 25 c Rickettsia a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracelluar parasitic bacteria rickettsiology area of science that studies rickettsia sarcinae a cube-like packet of eight spherical bacteria (sarcina in latin for bundle) secondary infection infection caused by a different organism that the one causing the primary infection septicemia condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood Spirillum (pl. Spirilla) a genus of spiral bacteria having a corkscrew shape with a rigid cell wall and hair-like projections called flagella that assist in movement spirochete a genus of bacteria having a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense. movement i these organisms occurs by contractions (undulating) of long filaments (endoflagella) that run the length of the cell sporadic a disease which occurs occasionally or in scattered instances staphylococcus genus of gram-positive nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular grape-like clusters sterilization process of completely removing or destroying all life forms or their products on or in a substance streptobacilli a genus of bacteria containing gram-negative rods that form a chain like colony streptococci gram positive cocci that occur in chains strict (obligate) aerobe a microbe that can only live in the presence of oxygen strict (obligate) anaerobe a microbe taht only survive in an area without oxygen present strict (obligate) parasite an organism that is completely dependent on it living host for survival strict (obligate) saprophyte an organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter symbiosis the living together in close association of two organisms of different species synergism the harmonious action of two microorganism producing an effect that neither could produce alone tetracocci a grouping of four spherical shpaed cells thermophile bacteria that thrive best at high temperatures between 40 c and 70 c toxemia blood distribution throughout the body of poisonous product of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thous producing generalized symptoms toxin a poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial, or fungal origin true pathogen real or genuine disease-producing organism vibrio a genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bent rods that resemble commas virucide an agent destructive to viruses virology a study of viruses and viral diseases virulence relative power and degree of pathogenicity possessed by organisms to produce disease virus an intracellular, infectious parasite, capable of living and reproducing only in living cells.