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allergy (hypersensitivity)

an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance (allergen) that does not normally cause a reaction

antagonism

mutual opposition or contrary action. The inhibition of one bacterial organism by another.

antibody

glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen. also known as immunoglobulin

antigen

a foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it

antisepsis

the prevention of sepsis by preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative microorganism

attenuation

dilution of weakening of virulence of a microorganism, reducing, or abolishing pathogenicity

autotrophic bacteria

self-nourishing bacteria that are capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds. Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide.

Bacillus (pl. Bacilli)

any rod shaped microorganism

bacteremia

the presence of viable bacteria in the blood stream

bacteria

microscopic unicellular organisms having no nuclear membrane, devoid of chlorophyll, which reproduce by binary fission

bacterial colony

a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism

bactericide

an agent that destroys bacteria buy not necessarily their spores.

binary fission

a method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which the cell splits into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual.

biological vector

an arthropod vector in which the disease-causing organism multiplies or develops withing the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual

Bleaches (hypochlorites)

hypochlorites

capsule

the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria, helps to protect against phagocytosis

chlamydia

a large group of nonmotile, gram-negative intracellular parasites

Coccus (pl. cocci)

a type of bacteria that is spherical or ovoid in form

commensalism

the symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains benefit such as protection or nourishment

communicable

a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another

contamination

the act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance

diplobacilli

a double bacillus, two being linked end to end to each other

diplococcus

a genus of bacteria that are gram-positive organisms occurring in pairs. Also called streptococcus

drug-fast

resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of drug or drugs

disinfectant

a chemical or physical agent that kills disease-causing microorganisms - generally used on inanimate objects

disinfection

the destruction of infectious agents by chemical or physical means directly applied to an inanimate object

endemic

disease that occurs continuously in a particular region but has low mortality.

endogenous infection

produced or arising from within a cell or organism

endospores

a thick-walled spore within a bacterium

endotoxin

bacterial toxin confined within the body of a bacterium freed only when the bacterium is broken down, found only in gram-negative bacteria

facultative aerobe

a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live an grow in the presence of oxygen

facultative anaerobe

an organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence

facultative saprophyte

prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions

Epidemic

appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area

exogenous infection

orginating outside an organ or part

exotoxin

a toxin produced by a microorganism and excreted into its surrounding medium, generally protein in nature

facultative bacteria

having the cpacity to do something athat is not compulsory, in particular having the ability to live or adapt to certain conditions

focal infection

one in which the organism are originally confine to one area but enter teh blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of the body

fomite

any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted

fungus (pl. fungi)

a group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicelluar organisms, lacking chlorophyll usually bearing spores and often filamentous

fungicide

an agent that kills fungi and their spores

general infection

an infection that becomes systemic

germicide

a substance that destroy microorganisms

heterotrophic bacteria

organisms that require complex organic food from a carbon source in order to grow and develop

hypersensitivity (allergy)

an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction

indigenous flora

plant life occurring or adapted for living in specific environment

infection

the state or condition in which the body or a part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects

insecticide

a substance that kills insects

iodophores

a compound consisting of iodine combined with a carrier, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, often used as a preoperative skin disinfectant

larvacide

a substance that kills insect larva

local infection

infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there

maximum temperature

temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place

mechanical vector

a living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by carrying a disease agent on it external body parts or surface

mesophile

bacteria that prefers moderate temperature and develops best at temperatures between 25 C and 40 C

microaerophilic

a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen

microbiology

scientific study of microorganism and their effect on other living organisms

minimum temperature

temperature below which bacterial groth wil not take place

mixed infection

infection caused by two or more organism

mutualism

a relationship in which organisms of two different species live in close association, to the mutual benefit of each

mycology

a branch of science concerned with the study of fungi

mycoplasmas

bacteria of the mycoplasma genus that are found in humans, most having no cell wall; the smallest free living organisms presently known, being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria

non-symbiotic

organisms that are free living and relationship are not required for survival

opportunist

an organism that exist as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions

pandemic

a disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time to may different parts of the world

parasitism

an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits

pathogenicity

the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease

primary infection

an original infection from which a second on originates

prion

small proteinaceous infectious agents (particles) which almost certainly do not have a nucleic acid genome and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids. Prion disease are often called spongiform encepholopathies

protozoa

unicellular organisms which are the lowest forms of animal life

protozoology

science that deals with the study of protozoa

psychrophile

bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temperatures between 0 c and 25 c

Rickettsia

a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracelluar parasitic bacteria

rickettsiology

area of science that studies rickettsia

sarcinae

a cube-like packet of eight spherical bacteria (sarcina in latin for bundle)

secondary infection

infection caused by a different organism that the one causing the primary infection

septicemia

condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood

Spirillum (pl. Spirilla)

a genus of spiral bacteria having a corkscrew shape with a rigid cell wall and hair-like projections called flagella that assist in movement

spirochete

a genus of bacteria having a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense. movement i these organisms occurs by contractions (undulating) of long filaments (endoflagella) that run the length of the cell

sporadic

a disease which occurs occasionally or in scattered instances

staphylococcus

genus of gram-positive nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular grape-like clusters

sterilization

process of completely removing or destroying all life forms or their products on or in a substance

streptobacilli

a genus of bacteria containing gram-negative rods that form a chain like colony

streptococci

gram positive cocci that occur in chains

strict (obligate) aerobe

a microbe that can only live in the presence of oxygen

strict (obligate) anaerobe

a microbe taht only survive in an area without oxygen present

strict (obligate) parasite

an organism that is completely dependent on it living host for survival

strict (obligate) saprophyte

an organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter

symbiosis

the living together in close association of two organisms of different species

synergism

the harmonious action of two microorganism producing an effect that neither could produce alone

tetracocci

a grouping of four spherical shpaed cells

thermophile

bacteria that thrive best at high temperatures between 40 c and 70 c

toxemia

blood distribution throughout the body of poisonous product of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thous producing generalized symptoms

toxin

a poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial, or fungal origin

true pathogen

real or genuine disease-producing organism

vibrio

a genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bent rods that resemble commas

virucide

an agent destructive to viruses

virology

a study of viruses and viral diseases

virulence

relative power and degree of pathogenicity possessed by organisms to produce disease

virus

an intracellular, infectious parasite, capable of living and reproducing only in living cells.

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