the founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, Muhammad is the ultimate and final prophet
Muslim name for the one and only God
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
the leader of an Arab village or family
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
a believer or follower of Islam
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
A city Muhammad and his followers visited after death threats to Muhammad (later named Medina)
the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
Five Pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
(Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque
Muhammad Ali and Abu Bakr
Cousin to Muhammad believed by the Shi'ites to be the rightful ruler.Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Umayyad Caliphate and Damascus
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate., an ancient city (widely regarded as the world's oldest) and present capital and largest city of Syria
Shi'ite's and Sunni's
Sunnis wanted to return back to Muhammads orignal teachings. Sunnis dont believe in Imamate or Hidden Imam. dispute over successor to Muhammad. Don't like each other due to religious beliefs.
Fatmids and Cairo
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
Abu al-Abbas and the Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad
sultan of Syria and Egypt
One who murders by surprise attack, especially one who carries out a plot to kill a prominent person
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
"fleets of the desert"
Sufism and Rumi
A form of religious belief that calls for a mystic relationship with Allah and Muhammad, This poet practiced this
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
Mosque of Cordoba
mosque built into a catholic church built by the visigoths - rivalry of religions - concepts of archiitecture that gothic architecture later uses
a palace and fortress built in Granada by the Muslims in the Middle Ages
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians
The body of civil law
Laws by Justinian that were used by the Eastern Roman Empire until 1453 and formed much of the legal system of Europe
the largest city and former capital of Turkey
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of images
split from Catholic Church because they did not believe in Pope as supreme ruler of Church. Practiced in Byzantium.