chainlike molecules formed from the linking together of many similar or identical small moleculesf
reaction that joins monomers in which one monomer provides a hydroxyl group and the other contributes a hydrogen to release a water molecule
the breaking of bonds between monoers through the addition of water molescules
sugars and their polymers; serve as fuel and building material
basic unit of carbohydrates; have the general formula CH2O, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of one sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids.
two monosaccharides joined together by a glycosidic bond. these are plentiful in nature, and, like monosaccharides, also serve as nutrients. common example is table sugar sucrose
Covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
Many sugars.- stores energy and provides structure.
storage molecule in plants; polymer made of glucose molecules joined by 1-4 linkages that give it a helical shape
highly branced polymer of glucose in animals used for energy storage
major component of plant cell wallls; most abundant organic compound on Earth
structural polysaccharide formed from glucose monomers with a nitrogen-containing group; found in arthropods and cell walls of fungi
strong from of glucose; helical; animals can hydrolize (digest) it
straight; undigestable by animals because they lack the necessary enzymesf
biochemicals that do not dissolve in water (fats, oils, and waxes) make up cell membranes, store energy
composed of fatty acids attached to the three-carbon alcohol (glycerol); energy storage molecules
a long hydrocarbon chian with a carboxyl group at one end; it is hydrophobic due to the nonpolar hydrocarbons
another term for fat
Unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid whose carbon chain can absorb additional hydrogen atoms; has double bonds in the carbon skeleton; liquid at room temperature
Saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid whose carbon chain cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms; has no double bonds; solid at room temperature
consists of a glycerol linked to two fatty acids and a negatively charged phosphate group; phosphate head is hydrophillic and the tail is hydrophobic; makes up cell membrane
class of lipids distinguished by four connected carbon rings with various functional groups attached
important steroid that is a common component of animal cell membranes and a precursor for other steroids
consists of one or more polypeptide chains folded into a specific three-dimensional conformation; used for structural support, storage transport, cellular communications, movement, and defense against foreign substances
polymer of amino acids
composed of an asymmetric carbon bonded to a hyrdrogen, a carboxyl group, an amino group, and an R gruop
links the amino group or one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another
the unique, genetically coded sequence of amino acids within a protein
the coiling or folding of the polypeptide chain determined by hydrogen bonds; alpha helix or beta pleated
determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups); different types of bonds such as hydrogen, ionic, hydrophobic, van der waals
protein consisting of mulitple polypeptide chains
proteins that assist other proteins during hte folding process, perhaps by providing a sheltered environment until it is stable
the units of inheritance that determine the primary structure of proteins
polymers that carry and transmit the structure of proteins; polymers of nucleotides
the genetic material that is inherited from one generation to the next and is reproduced in each cell of an organism; provides directions for replication and controls RNA synthesis which contorls protein synthesis
directs the synthesis of proteins
monomers that consist of a pentose (five carbon sugar, either deoxyribose or ribose) covalently bonded to a phostphate group and a nitrogenous base
nitrogenous bases including cytosine, thymine, and uracil; six membered rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms; thymine is only in DNA and uracil is only in RNA
nitrogenous bases including adenine and guanine; double ring
structure of DNA molecule that consists of two chains of nucleic acids spiraling around an imaginary axis
Monosacharides that form maltose
Monosaccharides that form sucrose
glucose and fructose
Monosaccharides that form lactose
glucose and galactose
Which polysaccharide is best for strength and structure?
chitin and cellulose
Which polysaccharide is best for storage and sugar release?
starch and glycogen
What is the role and structure of starch?
energy storage, made of glucose monomers and is alpha
What is hte role and structure of glycogen?
energy storage, alpha
What is the role and structure of cellulose?
Why are fats hydrophobic?
Theyt are made up of hydrocarbons which have non-polar covalent bonds
What is unique about steriods?
Thet have four carbon rings
Functions of protein?
structural support, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, defense against foreign substances
What are the three properties used to classify amino acids?
Non polar, polar, or electrically charged