MODULE 4-A TISSUE, MEMBRANES AND WOUND HEALING

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TISSUE

A COLLECTION OF CELLS THAT SHARE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE AND ARE ORGANIZED TO PERFORM A SPECIFIC FUNCTION

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

TISSUE CONSISTING OF CELLS BOUND BY CONNECTIVE MATERIAL AND VARYING IN THE NUMBER OF LAYERS AND IN THE KINDS OF CELLS

EPITHELIAL TISSUES FORMS

THE EPITHELIEUM

THE EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY IS MADE OF

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS SELLS
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL CELLS
STRATIFIED COLUMNAR CELL

EPITHELIUM:

THE COVERING OF THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF THE BODY, ALSO THE LINING OF THE VESSELS,BODY CAVITIES, GLANS AND ORGANS

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

DENSE TISSUE CONTAINING LARGE NUMBERS OF CELLS AND LARGE AMOUNTS OF INTERCELLULAR MATERIAL COMPOSED OF FIBERS IN A MATRIX OR GROUND SUBSTANCE THAT MAY BE LIQUID, GELATINOUS OR SOLID

NERVE TISSUE

TISSUE CONSISTING OF ONE OR MORE BUNDLES OF IMPULSE CARRYING FIBERS THAT CONNECT THE BRAIN AND THE SPINAL CORD WITH OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY

MUSCLE TISSUE

TISSUE COMPOSED OF FIBERS THAT ARE ABLE TO CONTRACT, CAUSING AND ALLOWING MOVEMENT OF THE PARTS AND ORGANS OF THE BODY

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE

PROVIDES A PROTECTIVE BARRIER AGAINST EXTREME TEMPATURES,ENVIROMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND INVASIONS BY ORGANISMS WHILE ALLOWING SECRETION AND EXCRETION OF WASTE

FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE

BINDS TO OTHER TISSUE STRUCTURES TO SUPPORT AND ORGANIZE THE BODY; BINDS TO FOREIGN CELLS TO PROTECT THE BODY; BINDS TO MOLECULES TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS THROUGH THE BODY

FUNCTIONS OF NERVE TISSUE

CONDUCTS ELECTRICAL SIGNALS THROUGH THE BODY

FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLE TISSUE

ALLOWS THE MOVEMENT OF THE MOVEABLE STRUCTURES OF THE BODY

THE EPITHELIEUM COVERS

THE BODY AND MANY OF ITS PARTS

THE EPITHELIEUM LINES THE BODY'S

SEROUS CAVITIES
BLOOD AND LYMPH VESSELS
RESPIRATORY TRACTS
DIGESTIVE TRACTS
URINARY TRACTS

SEROUS

EPITHELIAL TISSUE THAT LINES CLOSED BODY CAVITIES AND COVERS THE ORGANS IN THAT CAVITY

THE BODYS GLANDS CONSIST

OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE

CELLS THAT COMPOSE THE EPITHELIUM ARE COMPACTLY ARRANGED WITH

LITTLE INTERCELLULAR SUBSTANCE

THE EPITHELIUM ALWAYS RESTS ON A LAYER OF

CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH A BASEMENT MEMBRANE BETWEEN THEM

THERE ARE NO CAPILLARIES WITHIN THE EPITHELIUM, WHICH MEANS THAT OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS

MUST BE PROVIDED BY THE UNDERLYING CONNECTIVE TISSUE THROUGH DIFFUSION

MEMBRANE

A THIN LAYER OF TISSUE THAT COVERS A SURFACE, LINES A CAVITY OR DIVIDES A SPACE

BASEMENT MEMBRANE

THE FRAGILE, NONCELLULAR LAYER OF TISSUE THAT SECURES THE OVERLYING LAYERS OF STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM

DIFFUSION

THE PROCESS OF A SUBSTANCE MOVING FROM AN AREA OF HIGH CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION

EPITHELIAL CELLS UNDERGO CONSTANT MITOSIS IN ORDER TO

REPLACE THE OUTER LAYER CELLS THAT ARE LOST THROUGH WEAR AND EXPOSURE TO FORCES AND THE ENVIROMENT

EPITHELIAL TISSUE CAN BE CLASSISIFED BY THE

SHAPE AND ITS CELLS AND BY ITS TISSUE LAYER ARRANGEMENT. WHETHER OR NOT THE TISSUE CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LAYER OF CELLS OR MULTIPLE LAYERS

SQUAMOUS TISSUE

TISSUE CONSISTING OF FLAT CELLS THAT SOMEWHAT RESEMBLE SCALES

CUBOIDAL TISSUE

TISSUE CONSISTING OF CELLS THAT SOMEWHAT RESEMBLE SQUARE BOXES, HAVING DIMENSIONS APPROXIMATELY THE SAME HEIGHT, WIDTH, AND DEPTH

COLUMNAR TISSUE

TISSUE CONSISTING OF CELLS THAT SOMEWHAT RESEAMBLE RECTANGULAR BOXES, HAVING ONE DIMENSION THAT IS LONGER THAN THE OTHERS

SIMPLE TISSUE

TISSUE CONSISTING OF A SINGLE LAYER OF CELLS

STRATIFIED TISSUE

TISSUE CONSISTING OF MORE THAN ONE LAYER OF CELLS, MULTIPLE LAYERS

STRATIFIED TISSUES ARE ONLY FORMED BY

SQUAMOUS CELLS ONLY

FUNCTIONS OF SQUAMOUS TISSUE

LINES THE BLOOD VESSELS AND THE ALVEOLI, THE THINNESS OF THE TISSUE ALLOWS GASES AND CHEMICALS TO PASS THROUGH THE TISSUE

FUNCTIONS OF CUDOIDAL TISSUE

LINES GLANDS SUCH AS THE THYROID AND SALIVARY GLANDS, THE SHAPE OF THE TISSUE PROMOTES SECRETION OF CHEMICALS BY THE GLANDS

ALVEOLUS

ONE OF THE MANY SMALL SACS WITHIN THE LUNGS IN WHICH THE EXCHANGE OF GASES TAKE PLACE, ABSORBING OXYGEN AND RELEASING CARBON DIOXIDE

FUNCTIONS OF COLUMNAR TISSUE

LINES THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES AND SECRETES GASTRIC JUICES AND ENZYMES, SOME HAVE CILLIA TO SWEEP SUBSTANCES ALONG, SUCH AS THOSE THAT LINE THE FALLOPIAN TUBES AND MOVE AN OVUM TOWARD THE UTERUS

FUNSTIONS OF THE SIMPLE TISSUE

FORMS THE SINGLE LAYER LININGS OF THE CAPILLARIES, THE THYROID GLAND AND THE STOMACH, THE THINNESS OF THE TISSUE ALLOWS GASES AND OTHER SUBSTANCES TO GO IN AND OUT THROUGH THE TISSUE

SIMPLE TISSUE IN THE CAPILLARIES CONSISTS OF

SQUAMOUS CELLS

SIMPLE TISSUE IN THR TYROID CONSISTS OF

CUDOIDAL CELLS

SIMPLE TISSUE IN THE STOMACH CONSISTS OF

COLUMNAR CELLS

FUNCTIONS OF THE STRATIFIED TISSUE

FORMS THE OUTER LAYER OF THE LAYER OF THE SKIN AND THE LINING OF THE ESOPHAGUS AND THE VAGINA, THE THICKNESS OF THE TISSUE AND ITS SECRETIONS HELP TO PROTECT THE BODY AGAINST PATHOGENS

THE MOST COMMON TISSUE IN THE BODY IS

CONNECTIVE

WHAT PROTECTS AND SUPPORTS THE ORGANS, TRANSPORTS SUBSTANCES AND BINDS BODY STRUCTURES

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

RETICULAR TISSUE

LOCATED IN THE SPLEEN, LYMPH NODES AND BONE MARROW; FILTERS HARMFUL SUBSTANCES FROM THE BLOOD AND LYMPH

AREOLAR TISSUE

LOCATED IN LOSSE ACCUMULATIONS BETWEEN TISSUES AND ORGANS, CONNECTS TISSUES

ADIPOSE TISSUE

LOCATED UNDER THE SKIN, PROVIDES PADDING, INSULATION AND A PLACE TO STORE FATS

FIBROUS TISSUE

LOCATED IN TENDONS,LIGAMENTS, DEEP FASCIA, DERMIS AND THE KIDNEYS PROVIDES STRONG, FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS AND THE FORMATION OF SCARS

TENDON

A FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT CONNECTS MUSCLE TO BONES

LIGAMENTS

A FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT JOINS ONE BONE TO ANOTHER

DEEP FASCIA

A BAND OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT COVERS OR BINDS TOGETHER BODY STRUCTURES WITHIN BODY CAVITIES

DERMIS

THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT MAKES UP MTHE INNER LAYER OF SKIN

BONE TISSUE

LOCATED IN THE SKELETON, FORMS BONES TO SUPPORT THE BODY AND PROTECT ORGANS AND TISSUE

CARTILAGE TISSUE

LOCATED IN THE NOSE, EARS, TRACHEA AND EUSTACHIAN TUBES AND AT BONE JOINTS, PROVIDES A FIRM BUT NOT RIGID STRUCTURE AND PADDING BETWEEN BONES

TRACHEA

THE WINDPIPE

EUSTACHIAN TUBE

A CANAL THAT ALLOWS AIR TO PASS BETWEEN THE MIDDLE EAR CAVITY AND THE NASOPHARYNGEAL CAVITY

BLOOD TISSUE

LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE BLOOD SYSTEM, TRANSPORTS MATERIALS, INCLUDING OXYGEN, THROUGHOUT THE BODY AND COMBATS FOREIGN ORGANISMS AND CELLS

LYMPHATIC TISSUE

LOCATED IN THE LYMPH NODES, SPLEEN, TONSILS AND THYMUS; FORMS CERTAIN TYPES OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS

MYELOID TISSUE

LOCATED IN THE BONE MARROW, FORMS RED AND WHITE BLOOD CELLS AND PLATELETS

PLATELET

A BLOOD CELL THAT HELPS THE CLOTTING PROCESS USED TO SEAL A WOUND

ELASTIC TISSUE

LOCATED ALONG THE WALLS OF THE LARGE ARTERIES AND ALVEOLI IN THE LUNGS; HELPS IN MAINTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE BLOOD SYSTEM AND IN THE EXHALATION OF BREATH IN THE LUNGS

NEURONS

THE BASIC NERVE TISSUE CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT ARE CAPABLE OF GENERATING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPULSES THAT CARRY INFORMATION TO AND FROM THE BRAIN

NEUROGLIA

THE SUPPORTING OR CONNECTING TISSUE CELLS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

NEURONS CONSIST OF A CELL BODY AND 2 EXTENSIONS

AXONS AND DENDRITES

A NEURON WILL HAVE

1 AXON BUT MAY HAVE SEVERAL DENDRITES

AXON

CARRIES NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPULSES FROM THE CELL BODY

DENDRITE

CARRIES NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPULSES TO THE CELL BODY

CELL BODY

PERFORMS METABOLIC AND REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS FOR THE CELL

NEURONS ARE SURRONED BY SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT FORM THE

SHEATH OF SCHWANN
( WHICH ELECTRICALLY ISOLATES NEURONS)

SHEATH

A COVERING, ESPECIALLY A LOOSE FITTING ONE

THE AXON OF ONE NEUTRON IS SEPERATED FROM A DENDRITE OF AN ADJOINING NEURON BY A SPACE CALLED

SYNAPSE

NERVE SYSTEM IMPULSES CANNOT CROSS THE SYNAPSE INLESS ITS FILLED WITH SPECIAL CHEMICALS CALLED

NEUROTRANSMITTERS

WHAT ARE THE THREE KINDS OF NEURONS

SENSORY
MOTOR
INTERNEURONS

SENSORY NEURONS AKA

AFFERENT NEURONS

SENSORY NEURONS

CARRY SIGNALS FROM RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN
SKELETAL MUSCLES
JOINTS
AND ORGANT TO THE CNS

MOTOR NEURONS AKA

EFFERENT NEURONS

MOTOR NEURONS

CARRY INPULSES FROM THE CNS TO EFFECTORS THAT CAUSE RESPONSES IN THE MUSCLES AND GLANDS

INTERNEURONS

LOCATED IN THE CNS
CARRY BOTH SENSORY OR MOTOR IMPLUSES
OR CONNECT THEM
AND SUPPORT THINKING AND LEARNING

TYPES OF NEUROGLIA

OLIGODENDROCYTES
MICROGLIA
ASTROCYTES
EPENDYMA

TYPES OF NERVE TISSUE

NEURONS
NEUROGLIA

OLIGODENDROCYTES

FORM THE INSULATING SHEATH(COVERING) ON NEURONS IN THE CNS

MICROGLIA

MOVE SO THEY CAN LOCATE AND DESTROY DAMAGED TISSUE AND INVADING CELLS AND ORGANISMS

ASTROCYTES

PREVENT HARMFUL CHEMICALS FROM ENTERING THE BRAIN FROM CONTAMINATED BLOOD

EPENDYMA

LINE THE CAVITIES IN THE BRAIN AND HELP TO CIRCULATE CSF

CSF

CEREBRALSPINAL FLUID
THE TISSUE FLUID THAT CIRCULATES AROUND THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
LUBRICATES AND CUSHIONS

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION

WHETHER THE MUSCLE TISSUE IS STRIATED OR SMOOTH(NONSTRAIATED)

STRAITED

LINED WITH GROOVES

LEVEL OF CONSCIOUS CONTROL

WHETHER THE MUSCLE IS VOLUNTARY OR INVOLUNTARY

VOLUNTARY

MUSCLES THAT ARE CONSCIOUSLY CONTROLLED BY THE WILL OF A PERSON

EX: MUSLCES MOVE AN ARM

INVOLUNTARY

MUSCLES THAT WORK AUTOMATICALLY

EX: HEART MUSCLES

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE MUSCLE TISSUE CLASSIFICATIONS

STRUCTURAL COMPOSTION
LEVEL OF CONSCIOUS CONTROL
LOCATION

LOCATION

WHETHER THE MUSCLE TISSUE IS SKELETAL, VISCERAL OR CARDIAC

SKELETAL

STRAITED
VOLUNTARY MUSCLE TISSUE ATTATCHED TO BONES

VISCERAL

SMOOTH
INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE TISSUE THAT LINES THE WALLS OF HALLOW ORGANS

CARDIAC

STRIATED
INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE TISSUE THAT COMPOSES THE WALLS OF THE HEART

FLEXION

DECREASES THE ANGLE OF A JOINT

MOVING YOUR HAND TOWARDS YOU PALM UP

EXTENSION

INCREASE THE ANGLE OF A JOINT

PALM UP MOVING ARM DOWN ALL THE WAY

AD-DUCTION

MOVE A LIMB TOWARDS THE MIDLINE

AB-DUCTION

MOVE LIMB AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY

PRONATION

ROATATING MOVEMENT OF THE HAND SO THAT THE PALM FACES BACKWARDS OR DOWNWARDS
-ROTATING THE FOOT INWARD AND DOWNWARDS

SUPINATION

ROATATING HAND SO THE PALM FACES UPWARD OR FORWARD
-CORRESPONDING MOVEMENT OF THE LEG AND FOOT

DORSIFLEXION

MOVEMENT OF THE BODY TOWARDS THE BACK
TOES MOVING UPWARD

PLANTAR FLEXION

TOE DOWN MOVEMENT

ROTATION

ROTATING MOVEMENT ON A AXIS

NEUROMUSCULAR EXCITABILITY

THE RESPONSE OF MUSCLE TISSUE TO STIMULATION BY THE NERVOUS SYTEM
SENDING AN ELECTRICAL IMPLUSE TO SELECTED TISSUE

NEUROMUSCULAR EXCITABILITY RESPONSE AKA

SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY

EACH MUSCLE FIBER IS CONNECTED TO

THE MOTOR AXON OF A MOTOR NERVE

THE POINT WHERE THE NEURON TERMINATES ON A MUSCLE FIBER IS CALLED

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

ACETYLCHOLINE AKA

ACh

ACETYLCHOLINE

NEUROTRANSMITTER IN THE SAC IN THE END OF THE NERVE

THE SARCOLEMMA

MEMBRANE OF THE MUSCLE FIBER HAS RECEPTORS THAT ARE SENSATIVE TO ACh

DURING NORMAL RELAXED STATE THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF A MUSCLE FIBER IS

POSITIVLEY CHARGED DUE TO AN ABUNDANCE OF POSITIVE SODIUM IONS

DURING NORMAL RELAXED STATE THE CORE OF THE FIBER IS

NEGATIVELY CHARGED DUE TO AN ABUNDANCED OF NEGATIVE POTASSIUM IONS

NEGATIVE POTASSIUM IONS

K-

POSITIVE SODIUM IONS

Na+

A NERVE IMPULSE ARRIVING AT THE MOTOR AXON CAUSES

A RELEASE OF ACh

ACh BINDS TO THE RECEPTORS IN THE FIBER MEMBRANE, CASUING IT TO BECOMING

PERMEABLE TO SODIUM AND ALLOWING IONS TO MOVE FORWARD THE CORE OF THE FIBER

AN ARRANGEMENT OF FILAMENTS WITH THE MUSCLE FIBER

SHORTEN TO CONTRACT THE FIBER

SARCOMERE

Smallest functional unit of muscle tissue

PERMEABLE

CPABLE OF ALLOWING SUBSTANCES TO PENETRATE A STRUCTURE

FILAMENT

A THREADLIKE, FLEXABLE STRUCTURE

BECAUSE ALL THE FIBERS IN THE MUSCLE ARE UNDERGOING THE SAME NEUROMUSCULAR EXCITATION

THE ENTIRE MUSCLE CONTRACTS

AS LONG AS IMPLUSES CONTINUE, THE MUSCLE WILL REMAIN

CONTRACTED IN A CONDITION KNOWN AS TETANUS

WHEN THE NERVE IMPLUSES CEASE, THE SARCOLEMMA RELEASES

CHOLINESTERASE
WHICH INACTIVATES THE ACh

THE SODIUM IONS FLOW BACK TO THE SURFACE OF THE FIBER SO IT

RETURNS TO ITS NORMAL CHARGE STATE OF
POSTIVIE MEMBRANE
NEGATIVE CORE

MEMBRANE

THIN LAYER OF TISSUE THAT COVERS A SURFACE, LINES A CAVITIY OR DIVIDES A SPACE

MADE OF EPITHELIAL OR CONNECTIVE TISSUE

4 TYPES OF MEMBRANES

MUCCOUS MEMBRANE
SEROUS MEMBRANE
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE

MUCCOUS MEMBRANE

LINES CAVITIES AND PASSGAES THAT OPEN TO THE EXTERIOR

NASAL PASSGAE TO TRAP DIRT DUST POLLEN IS LINES WITH MUCCOUS MEMBRANES

SEROUS MEMBRANE

LINES THE CLOSED CAVITIES OF THE BODY

SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

LINES THE SKELETAL JOINTS, TENDONS AND BURSAE

CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE

COVERS THE BODY AS SKIN

BURSAE

A SAC OF SYNOVIAL FLUID THAT HELPS TO REDUCE FRICTION BETWEEN A BONE AND A TENDON

3 LAYERS OF SKIN

EPIDERMIS
DERMIS
HYPODERMIS

EPIDERMIS

THE OUTER PAYER OF SKIN MADE UP OF AN OUTER,DEAD PORTION AND A DEEPER, LIVING, CELLULAR PORTION

DERMIS

THE INNER LAYER OF SKIN CONSISTING OF PAPILLARY AND RETICULAR LAYERS AND CONTAINING BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC VESSELS, NERVES AND NERVE ENDINGS, GLANDS AND HAIR FOLLICULES

HYPODERMIS

THE LAYER AREOLA TISSUE AND FAT THAT LIES BENEATH THE DERMIS

FUCNTION OF THE MUCCOUS MEMBRANE

FORMS A SELECTIVE FILTER THAT ALLOWS SOME SUBSTANCES TO ENTER THE BODY WHILE KEEPING OTHERS OUT

SECREATES MUCOUS TO KEEP ITS CELLS MOIST, TO LUBRICATE ITS SURFACES AND TRAP FOREIGN MATERIALS

FUNCTIONS OF SEROUS MEMBRANE

PROVIDES THE VISCERAL LAYER THAT COVERS ORGANS ENCLOSED IN CAVITIES
-PROVIDES THE PARIETAL LAYER THAT LINES CAVISITIES
-SECRETES SEROUS FLUID TO SERVE AS A LUBRICANT AND PAD BETWEEN VISCERAL AND PARIETAL LAYERS

FUNCTIONS OF CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE

SECREATES SWEAT AND WASTES TO HELP MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS

FUNCTIONS OF SYNOVIAL FLUID

SECREATES SYNOVIAL FLUID TO PROVIDE LUBRICATION AND MOISTURE

VISCERAL

OF OR PERTAINING TO THE VISCERA OR INTERNAL ORGANS IN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITIY

PARIETAL

OF OR PERTAINING TO THE OUTER WALL OF A CAVITIY OR ORGAN

ORGAN

A STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF 2 OR MORE TISSUES THAT PERFORM A SOECIFIC FUNSTION FOR THE BODY

WHAT TISSUE AND MEMBRANES ARE FOUND IN THE HEART

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL TISSUE
FIBORUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CARDIA MUSCLE TISSUE
SEROUS MEMBRANE

IN THE HEART THE SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL TISSUE FORM WHAT

THE ENDOCARDIUM

IN THE HEART THE FIBORUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE FORMS

THE FIBORUS PERICARDIUM

IN THE HEART THE CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE FORMS

THE MYOCARDIUM

IN THE HEART THE SEROUS MEMBRANE FORMS

THE SEROUS PERICARDIUM

ENDOCARDIUM

THE LINING OF THE HEART AND CHAMBERS

PERICARDIUM

A SAC THAT SURROUNDS THE HEART

MYOCARDIUM

THE THICK MIDDLE LAYER OF THE HEART WALL

TYPES OF TISSUE AND MEMBRANES FOUND IN THE STOMACH

FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
SEROUS MEMBRANE

See More

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