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Race

Socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of society consider important.

Minority

Any catergory of people distinguished by physical or culture differences that a society sets apart and subordinates.

Ethnicity

Shared culutre heritage

Prejudice

Rigid and unfair gereralization about an entire catergory of people.

Sterotype

An exaggerated description appled to every person in some catergory.

Racism

The belief that one racial catergory is innately superior or inferior to another.

Scapegoat

A person or catergory of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles.

Discrimination

Unequal treatment of various catergories of people.

Institutional prejudice and discrimination

Bias built into the operation of society's institutions.

Pluralism

State in which people of all races and ethnicityies are distinct but have equal social standing.

Assimilation

The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture.

Segregation

The physical and social separation of catergories of people.

Miscegenation

Biological reproduction by partners of different racial catergories.

Genocide

The systematic killing of one catergory of people by another.

Social Institution

A major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs.

Economy

The social institution that organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Postindustrial Economy

a productive system based on service work and high technology

Primary Sector

The part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural enviorment.

Secondary Sector

The part of the economy that transfroms taw materials into manufacured goods.

Tertiary Sector

The part of the economy that involves services rather than goods.

Global Economy

Economic activity that crosses national borders.

Capatalism

An economic system in which natural resoureces and hte means of producing goods and services are privately.

Socialism

An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods adn services are collectively owned.

Welfare Capitalism

An economic and political system that combines a mostly marke-based economy with extensive social welfare programs.

State Capitalism

An economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government.

Profession

A prestigious white-collar occupation that requires extensice formal education.

Monopoly

The domination of a market by a single producer.

Oligopoly

The domination of a market by a few producers.

Politics

The social institution that distributes power,sets a society's goals and makes decisions.

Power

The ability to achieve ends despite resistance from others.

Government

A formal organization that directs the political life of society.

Routinization of Charisma

The transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority.

Monarchy

Is a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation.

Democracy

A political system that gives power to the people as a whole.

Authoritarianism

A political system that denies the people participation in government.

Totalitarianism

A highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives.

Welfare State

A system of gornment agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population.

Pluralist model

An analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups.

Power-elite Model

An analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich.

Marxist Political-economy Model

an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society's economic system.

Political Revolution

The overthrow of one political system in order to establish another.

Terrorism

Acts of violence or the threat of violence used as a political stradegy by an individual or a group.

War

Organized armed conflict among the people of two or more nations, directed by their governments.

Military-industrial Complex

The close association of the federal government, the military, and defense industries.

Marriage

A legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation as well as sexual activity and childbearing.

Kinship

A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.

Family

A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children.

Extended Famil

A family compsed of parents and children as well s other kin.

Nuclear Family

A family composed of one or two parents and theri children.

Endogamy

Marrige between people of the same social category.

Exogamy

Marriage between people of diffrent social catergory.

Monogamy

Marriage that unites two partners,

Polygamy

Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses.

Descents

The system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations.

Cohabitation

The sharing of a household by an umarried couple.

Profane

Occuring as an ordinary element of everyday life.

Sacred

Set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence.

Religion

Social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred.

Faith

Belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence.

Totem

An object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred.

The harlow experiments to discover the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys showed that:

Monkeys isolated for sis months were damaged.

Jean Piaget's focus was on:

Cognition: how people think and understand.

The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as:

Dramaturgical analysis

In General, we see the ________ as a means to an end; we see the _______ as an end in itself.

Secondary group, Primary group

In the "iron low of oligarchy," Robert Michels stated:

Bureaucracy always means the few rule the many.

The basic idea behind scientific management is:

That management can use scientific principles to make a business more productive.

In legal terms, a crime is composed of which two component?

The act and criminal intent.

Men, who represent about half the population, account for about _______ of all arrests for property crime in the United States.

70 Percent

The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because:

Most people who commit crimes have normal personalities.

Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion that:

Mental illnes is a myth: " insanity" amounts to differences that bother others.

According to the social-conflic approach, what a society labels as deviant is based primarily upon:

Patterns on inequality and who has more power

A college professor who has advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power can be described as having:

Low status consistency

Stuctural social mobility refers to:

Change in social position of may people due to changes in society itself.

According to the Davis-Moore thesis:

More important jobs must yield enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them well.

Evidence to date suggests that, as the United States moves into the post-industrial phase of economic development, economic inequality is:

Increasing

Which of the following factors affect social class standing in the United States?

Intergenerational social mobility

Gender refers to:

The personal traits and social postion that members of a society attach to being female and male.

In today's U.S. work force,

Women are still concentrated in several catergories of jobs.

Pink-Collar works regers to what type of jobs?

Clerical

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