The digestive tract of horses is best suited for what kind of diet?
Domestication of horses has caused what to their feeds?
Increased the amount of concentrated feeds.
Equine management today has an increased risk of what 3 health issues?
Colic, Muscle-associated disease, Laminitis.
The horse simple stomach is incapable of utilizing what kind of diet?
forage-based (high fiber) diets
What allows horses to digest forage as primary source of nutrition?
Extensive fermentation AFTER primary sites of digestion and absorption.
The horse's cecum is homologous to what human structure?
What percentage of digestion in a horse happens in the Large intestines?
What percentage of digestion in a horse happens in the Small intestines?
What percentage of digestion in a horse happens in the Colon?
What is the highly modified section of the horse's GI tract?
What are the 4 modified parts of the ascending colon?
Right ventral colon, Left ventral colon, Left dorsal colon, Right dorsal colon.
The duodenum in a horse is how many feet?
The jejunum in a horse is how many feet?
The Cecum can hold how many lbs of ingesta?
60lbs of ingesta
The Left Ventral Colon runs in what direction?
The Right Ventral Colon runs in what direction?
The Left Dorsal Colon runs in what direction?
The Right Dorsal Colon runs in what direction?
The colon can hold how many lbs of fecal?
>120lbs of fecal
The digestion and absorption of non-fibrous feed ingredients is done by which -gut?
Stomach and Small intestines
Large Intestines, Cecum, Colon, Rectum.
Digestion and fermentation of fibrous feed ingredients is done by which -gut?
Vitamins/minerals are absorbed in which part of the GI tract?
Fiber digestion occurs in which part of the GI tract?
Starch digestions occurs in which part of the GI tract?
Stomach and Small Intestines
Prehensile lips of horses are used to?
eat from manger and suctions to drink.
The tongues function is?
Propel a feed bolus to the pharynx to be swallowed.
What type of chewing is used to increase surface area?
Horses chew up to how many times a day?
Hypsodont teeth of Horse's have what formula?
What is the name of the routine procedure done to Horse's teeth?
What are the signs of poor dental health?
Quidding, abnormal head position during chewing, loss of condition, Colic
What are the jobs of Salivary glands?
Moisten feed, lubrication for swallowing, initiation of digestion, buffers stomach acid.
How much saliva is produced a day?
40L / 10gal
More saliva is need for which kind of feed?
What is required for degluttition?
intensive neurologic coordination
Peristaltic contractions of the esophagus are facilitated by what?
Striated muscles in proximal 2/3
Smooth muscles in distal 1/3
The Cricopharyngeus muscle controls what?
Upper esophageal sphincter
The esophagus enters the stomach at what sort of angle?
Horses are not able to vommit because of what?
Combination of angle of entry of esophagus into stomach and increased distal esophageal tone.
The small stomach of the horse can hold what volume?
8-12L or 2-3gal
What three things are produced in a horses stomach?
HCl, Gastrin, Pepsinogen
Horses will endure what before vomiting?
Since squamous mucosa has limited defenses against acid, how is it protected?
The forage ball in lower stomach protects against exposure of HCL and bile acids.
What are the glandular stomach's defenses against gastric acid?
Mucus barrier, bicarbonate secretion, Rapid regeneration and repair.
What neutralizes HCl in stomach?
Reflux of duodenal secretions
The time to pass through the small intestines is?
The small intestine can hold how many liters?
The small intestine is the primary site of digestion and absorption of what?
protein, fat, carbs, vitamins/minerals
incomplete pre-cecal digestion
Large meals promote what? Leading to what?
rapid transit to cecum; Colic
The Cecum can hold how many liters?
What is essential for good equine GI health?
The rate of passage between the Cecum is relatively?
The advantages of cellulose fermentation are?
plant cell walls and fiber are high in energy.
The disadvantages of cellulose fermentation are?
indigestible by mammals enzymes
Cellulase is found only in bacteria and some protozoans.
The composition of ingesta determines what?
the fermentative capacity
What are the three functions of the Large Colon?
1. Additional microbial fermentation
2. Primary site of water absorption
3. Microbial production of Vit B/Vit K
The Small Colon absorbs water to create what?
road apples (fecal balls)
The Rectum's function is to what?
store and expel feces.