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Quiz one, Introduction Handout

A chemical substance produced by one cell or group of cells that elicits generalized functions on other cells.

general hormone

What are some examples of general hormones?

thyroxin, cortisol

A chemical substance secreted by one cell or group of cells that elicits localized functions.

local hormone

What are some examples of local hormones?

epinephrine (neurotransmitters)

A hormone produced by the cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that influences the secretion of hormones by other glands.

Trophic hormone

What tropic hormone stimulates the release of cortisol?

ACTH

TSH stimulates the release of what?

thyroxine

Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary whose main functions are to stimulate the gonads of adult males and females and to produce gametes as well as the true sex hormones.

gonadotrophin

What are the true gonadotrophins?

LH and FSH

What steroid hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex?

all

What steroid hormones are produced in the gonads?

androgens, estrogens, progestins only

What steroid hormones are produced in the placenta?

androgens, estrogens, progestins only

What class of hormones are the active metabolites of vitamin D?

secosteroids

Where are secosteroids produced?

kidney, liver

Which class of hormones contain only one amino acid?

biogenic amines

Which are catecholamines?

epinephrine, norepinephrine

Where is epinephrine produced?

adrenal medulla

Where is norepinephrine produced?

postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings

Thyroid hormones, including true thyroxine, are what class of hormones?

biogenic amines

Which class of hormones are characterized by the linkage of three or more amino acids?

proteins, polypeptides, peptides (PPPs)

Hormones are not stored for long times in true endocrine glands. The exception to this rule would be the _______ gland.

thyroid

What other organ also stores hormones, but is not a true endocrine gland?

posterior pituitary

What is the most common medium for hormone transport?

blood

What do hormones bind to for transport in the blood?

plasma proteins

What are two less common transport systems for hormones?

lymphatic system, CSF

Where would almost all hormones be found in a catabolic state?

urine

What is the primary method of hormone inactivation?

liver (microsomal system)

What is the reason some hormones never reach their target site?

inactivation in transport mediums

Besides the liver and in the transport mediums, where else might a hormone be inactivated?

target site

Body fluids which contains the hormone to be measured is injected into live laboratory animals and the results compared to the results previously obtained using different concentrations of the hormone.

bioassay

Body fluid containing the hormone to be measured is introduced into a test tube along with a radioactive sample of the hormone, and a substance for the sample to bind to.

competitive binding

What is the most common type of hormonal assay?

radioimmunoassay

A type of competitive binding in which the binding substance is an antibody.

radioimmunoassay

A type of competitive binding in which the binding substance is a plasma

competitive protein binding

What are the four general areas of function of hormones?

maintenance of homeostatic mechanisms, influence on growth and development, controller of reproduction, primary factor in emergencies.

What is the primary function of somatotrophin?

increase linear height

What is another name for the pituitary gland?

hypophysis cerebri

What is sometimes called "The Master Gland"?

pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri)

Where is the pituitary gland located?

in the sella tursica of the sphenoid bone

What is the blood supply of the pituitary gland?

superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries (from the internal carotid arteries)

What is the embryological origin of the adenohypophysis?

Rathke's Pouch

What is the embryological origin of the Neurohypophysis?

diverticulum of floor of diencephalon

What are the three parts of the adenohypophysis?

Pars Tuberalis, Pars Intermedia, Pars Distalis

What is the main site of secretion of Anterior Pituitary Hormones?

Pars Distalis

The Pars Distalis is also called?

Pars Glanularis

What are the two types of cells in the adenohypophysis?

Chromophobic- non secretory cells
Chromophilic- secretory cells

Releasing factors and Inhibitory factors travel from hypothalamus via ______________ to the median eminences where they enter the _______________ to go to the anterior pituitary?

Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tracts
Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Portal Systems

Is the posterior pituitary a true endocrine gland?

no

What nuclei contribute to the Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tract?

Supraoptic Nucleus, Paraventricular Nucleus

What hormones are carried in the Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tract?

Oxytocin, Vasopressin

What is direct negative feedback?

Goes back to the source to influence production

What are the five factors that control the amount of hormones in plasma?

1. Hormones themselves can influence their own production
2. Neurological Factors
3. Psychological Factors
4. Physiological Factors
5. Mechanical Factors

What are the hormones of the adenohypophysis?

Somatotrophin, Luteotrophin, Melanotrophin, Corticotrophin, Endorphins, Thyrotrophin, Folliotrophin, Luteinizing Hormone

What is the mnemonic for the hormones of the adenohypophysis?

SLM CLEFT

What are "The Big Four"?

Stimulate Metabolism, Increase blood pressure, increase immune response, increase blood glucose (META-PIG)

What is the initials for Somatotrophin?

STH

What is the site of synthesis and cell type for somatotrophin?

anterior lobe of the pituitary by Somatotrophes in the Pars Distalis

What is the chemical class for Somatotrophin?

PPP

What is the primary function of STH in a person who is still growing?

increase linear height

What is the effect of excess STH in a child?

pituitary giantism

What is the effect of a decrease in STH in a child?

dwarfism

What are the secondary functions of STH?

stimulate metabolism, increase blood glucose, increase blood calcium, increase blood pressure, simulate breast development, increase the transport of oxygen, increase renal reabsorption of sodium and phosphorus ions, stimulate immune response, increase milk production

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