A chemical substance produced by one cell or group of cells that elicits generalized functions on other cells.
A chemical substance secreted by one cell or group of cells that elicits localized functions.
A hormone produced by the cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that influences the secretion of hormones by other glands.
Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary whose main functions are to stimulate the gonads of adult males and females and to produce gametes as well as the true sex hormones.
Which class of hormones are characterized by the linkage of three or more amino acids?
proteins, polypeptides, peptides (PPPs)
Hormones are not stored for long times in true endocrine glands. The exception to this rule would be the _______ gland.
Besides the liver and in the transport mediums, where else might a hormone be inactivated?
Body fluids which contains the hormone to be measured is injected into live laboratory animals and the results compared to the results previously obtained using different concentrations of the hormone.
Body fluid containing the hormone to be measured is introduced into a test tube along with a radioactive sample of the hormone, and a substance for the sample to bind to.
A type of competitive binding in which the binding substance is a plasma
competitive protein binding
What are the four general areas of function of hormones?
maintenance of homeostatic mechanisms, influence on growth and development, controller of reproduction, primary factor in emergencies.
What is the blood supply of the pituitary gland?
superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries (from the internal carotid arteries)
What are the two types of cells in the adenohypophysis?
Chromophobic- non secretory cells
Chromophilic- secretory cells
Releasing factors and Inhibitory factors travel from hypothalamus via ______________ to the median eminences where they enter the _______________ to go to the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tracts
Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Portal Systems
What nuclei contribute to the Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tract?
Supraoptic Nucleus, Paraventricular Nucleus
What are the five factors that control the amount of hormones in plasma?
1. Hormones themselves can influence their own production
2. Neurological Factors
3. Psychological Factors
4. Physiological Factors
5. Mechanical Factors
What are the hormones of the adenohypophysis?
Somatotrophin, Luteotrophin, Melanotrophin, Corticotrophin, Endorphins, Thyrotrophin, Folliotrophin, Luteinizing Hormone
What are "The Big Four"?
Stimulate Metabolism, Increase blood pressure, increase immune response, increase blood glucose (META-PIG)
What is the site of synthesis and cell type for somatotrophin?
anterior lobe of the pituitary by Somatotrophes in the Pars Distalis
What are the secondary functions of STH?
stimulate metabolism, increase blood glucose, increase blood calcium, increase blood pressure, simulate breast development, increase the transport of oxygen, increase renal reabsorption of sodium and phosphorus ions, stimulate immune response, increase milk production