Athletic Training

93 terms by acunn152

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Avulsion fracture

Fracture in which ligament tears off part of the bone

Ball & Socket joint

Glenohumeral joint

Contusion

compression injury

Ecchymosis

tissue discoloration

Comminuted fracture

three or more bone fragments

ligament

joins bone to bone

capsulitis

occurs from repeated joint sprains

Myositis

inflammation of muscle tissue

Aseptic necrosis

cause of osteochondrosis

Hinge Joint

elbow joint

DOMS

muscle soreness after 2-3 days

Spontaneous fracture

Stress fracture

Tendon

joins muscle to bone

calcification tendonitis

tendonitis that leads to mineral deposits

inversion force

approximately 85% of all ankle injuries that result from force

periostitis

a result of a contusion penetrating the outer layer of bone

Diastasis

technical name for total disunion between two articulatory processes

Common Sites for stress fractures

tibia, fibula, metatarsal shaft, calcaneous, femur, vertebrae, ribs, and humerous

Parts that all synovial joints have in common

2 or more bones that articulate w/ one another, a joint capsule, well supplied w/nerves, lines w/ synovial membrane

4 progressively severe stress fractures

focal microfractures, periosteal or endosteal response, linear fractures, displaced fractures

Ways that muscles stabilize joints

support the joint when it is moving, protect the joint

mechanical failure

cannot with stand stress anymore and tissue will break down

atrophy

partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body

avulsion fracture

an injury to the bone in the area where a tendon or ligament attaches to the skeleton

compression force

a force or pressure that attempts to flatten or squeeze a material

contracture

shortening of a muscle or joint

contusion

a bruise, damage to blood vessels

ectopic calcification

pathalogic deposition of calcium salts in tissues

myositis

inflammation of muscles

fasciitis

inflammation of the fossa

ecchymosis

skin discoloration caused by ruptured blood vessels, usually coincide with contusions

epiphysis

the rounded edge of a long bone

hyaline cartilage

found at the ends of bones to prevent bones from rubbing against each other and form a cushioning

ligament

fibrous tissue that connects bone to other bone

tonic

the response of muscle fiber on nerve ending typified by slow, continuous action

osteoblasts

mononucleate cells that are responsible for bone production

periosteum

membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, bone sheath. contains blood vessels and osteoblasts

shear force

internal force in any material, which is usually caused by any external force acting tangent to the material, or a force which has a component acting tangent to the material

synovitis

inflammation of the synovial membrane

tendon

connects muscles to bone

clonic

muscle spasm w a continuous contraction

tension force

the pulling apart of opposite force

visoelastic

property of a material which is viscous but which also exhibits certain elastic properties such as the ability to store energy of deformation and in which the application of a stress give rise to a stain that approaches its equilibrium slowly

yield point

point where muscle cannot resist the stress anymore and there will be a change (where elasticity is almost exceeded

torsion

loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends

muscle cramp

painful, involuntary skeletal muscle contraction occurs when muscle is in a shortened position

muscle soreness

overexertion in strenuous exercise resulting in muscular pain, usually occurs in activities that a person is not used to

tendonitis

gradual onset with diffuse tenderness due to repeated microtrauma and degenerative changes

subluxation

partial dislocations causing incomplete seperation of two bones

ASTM

regulates testing for sports equipment

Cantilever

protects AC joint

Corneal lens

covers the iris

mouth guard

can prevent cerebral concussions

HECC

regulates hockey equipment

NOCSAE

regulates testing for sports equipment

Prophylactic

preventative or protective methods

Scheral lens

covers the entire eye

thermomoldable

pliable heated foam

Sorbothane

high energy, high density foam

face guard to the helmet

3 in space between the top of the face guard and the lower edge of the helmet

face guard to face

1 in space

purposes of a properly fitted mouth guard

protects the teeth, absorbs shock of chin blows, helps prevent possible cerebral concussions

advantages of contact lenses

can reduce glare, move with the eye, do not fog up

disadvantages of contact lenses

corneal irritation, peripheral vision is impaired, can be uncomfortable

HIV

virus that leads to aids

HBV

virus that leads to liver inflammation

Virus

an organism that lives in cells

bloodborne pathogen

a microorganism that causes disease

OSHA

organization that is respsonsible for safety in the work place

two tests for HIV

EIA or ELISA

ratio of bleach to water

1:10

4 things done when reporting an exposure

have a medical evaluation that includes documentation of exposure route, identification of the source individual, blood test and counseling, evaluation of the reported illness

load

An external force acting on the body causing internal reactions within the tissues

stiffness

Ability of a tissue to resist a load
Greater stiffness = greater magnitude load can resist

stress

internal resistance to a load

strain

Internal change in tissue (i.e. length) resulting in deformation
MUSCLES

elastic

has some give, may be able to resist

Plastic

has no give and will not be able to resist any force

tissue failure

also known as mechanical danger, the point in which an injury will occur

viscoelastic

being able to resist or give with force

viscous

being able to resist, strong

tension

force that pulls and stretches tissue

compression

two tissue forces pushing towards each other (crushing)

shearing

force that moves across the parallel (twisting)

bending

tension and compression

key words in muscle strains

range of motion, palpable strength, discoloration

where most joints get injured

muscle tendonous junction and muscle belly

muscle cramp

painful involuntary muscle contraction

Muscle spasm

a reflex reaction caused by trauma

clonic

alternating spasms, contract-relax-contract-relax

tonic

a rigid muscle contraction that lasts a period of time

tendonosis

tendonitis without inflammation

Tenosynovitis

inflammation of synovial sheath

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