The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
Two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
Part of the brain involved in sleep regulation also connects a cerebellum to the cerebral cortex; deals with dreams.
The fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's control and information-processing center.
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, judgement, and impulsive behavior.
Portion behind to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch.
Part of the cerebral hemisphere that receives and interprets visual information.
The portion of the cerebral cortex that is just above the ears and that is involved in hearing, language processing, and memory.
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Controls language reception a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression. Located in left temporal lobe.
Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
The brain's ability to adapt.
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.