A&P 1 Ch. 11 Nervous system and tissues

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Study guide for Ch. 11

What are the three Nervous System functions?

Sensory input - gathering information
Integration - process and interpret sensory input
Motor input - response to stimuli

T/F Motor input is a Nervous Sytem function?

True

What is integration?

processing and interpreting sensory input.

The Nervous sytem gathers information through what process?

Sensory input

What are the two sturctural classifications of the Nervous System?

Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System

The Central Nervous system occupies what body cavity?

Dorsal body cavity

T/F the Central nervous system is not the command center of the entire Nervous system?

False - it is the command center

T/F the Central nervous system includes the Brain and Spinal cord?

True

T/F The Peripheral Nervous system is outside ofthe Central Nervous system?

True

How many functions does the Peripheral nervous system have?

Two -
Afferent Division- towards the Central nerovus system
Efferent- away from the Central nervous system

What is the man function of the Afferent Division of the Peripheral nervous system?

collection of sensory input from sensory receptors and sending input to the Central nervous system

The Afferent division of the PNS is also called the ______?

Sensory division

The Efferent division of the PNS is the ______ division.

Motor

What is the Main function of the Efferent division of the PNS?

Activates muscles and glands
carry impulses to effector organs

T/F the Efferent division transmits from the CNS to effector muscles?

True

What are the two main parts of the Effector division?

Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System

How many parts does the Effector Division of the PNS have?

Two

T/F The Somatic nervous system is part of the Afferent division?

False - it is part of the Efferent division

T/F the Somatic Nervous system sends impulses to the involuntary muscles?

False - it sends impulses to the skeletal muscles - the voluntary nervous system

What group of muscle does the Somatic Nervous system send impulses to?

Skeletal muscles

What muscle group does the Autonomic Nervous sysyem send inpules to?

Glands, Visceral organs, and Cardiac Muscles

What type of nervous system is the Autonomic nervous system?

Involuntary nervous system

What are the two types of Nervuos tissue?

Neurons
Neurogila

T/F Neurons are Highly cellular?

True

What is the main purpose of Neurons?

Conduct nerve impulses

T/F Neurons are not excitable?

False - They are excitable

T/F Neurogila are supporting cells?

True

What is the main function of Neurogila cells?

Support, protect and insulate

Which cells are smaller?
Neurons or Neurogila?

Neurogila

T/F Neurons outnumber Neugila cells by 10 to 1?

False- Neurogila outnumber neurons

What are the six Gila cell types?

Astrocytes
Microgila
Ependymal
Oligodendro
Satalite
Schwann

T/F Astrocytes are the most abundant Neurogila cell

True

Name the functions of Astrocytes.

Help form neuron connections
process local environment
anchor to nutrient site

T/F Astrocytes are not very versetile?

False

Microgila are the _____ of the CNS?

Microphage/ Defensive cells

T/F Microgila are the microphage of the PNS?

False - the CNS

Ependymal cells line ____ filled cavities in the CNS?

Fluid

T/F Ependymal cells produce Cilla?

True

One of the functions of the Ependymal cells is to mix cerebral ____ ____?

Spinal fluid

Oligodendrocytes wrap tightly around_____?

Neurons

What type of sheaths do Oligodendrocytes form in the CNS?

Myelin

T/F Astrocytes wrap around neurons?

False- Oligodendrocytes

What is the main function of Satellite cells?

Cushioning and protection

T/F Satellite cells surround cell bodies in the CNS?

False - the PNS

Satellite cells surround cell ___ in the PNS.

bodies

_____ cells wrap tightly around neuron axons in the PNS.

Schwann

T/F Schwann cells wrpa around axons only once to form myelin sheaths?

False - Mnay times

Schwann cells form ____ sheaths.

Myelin

____ are the structural unit of the nervous system?

Neurons

T/F Neurons are highly specialized cells?

True

Neurons conduct messages in the form of _____ _____ to differnt parts of the body.

Nerve impulses

T/F neurons only send impulses to the Brain?

False- many differnt parts of the body

What are the three characteristics of neurons?

extreme longevity
amitotic - lost ability to divide
high metabolic rate

T/F neurons high metabolic rate requires lots of oxygen and glucose?

True

T/F nuerons die quickly and do not live very long?

False - they live as long as we do.

What are the six parts of a neuron structure?

Cells Body
Dendrites
Axon
Axon Hillock
Axon Terminals
Myelin Sheath

Label the parts of the neuron structure

T/F Most neuron cell bodies are locates in the PNS?

False - CNS

T/F the rough endoplasmic reticulum of the cells bodies are call Nissl bodies?

True

Cell bodies are also called?

Soma or Perikaryon

Cell bodies have? Three things...

Large neucleus
nucleolus
organelles

Neurofibrils in cell bodies _____? function

Maintain shape and integrity

T/F Dendrites have organelles?

True

What is the function of Dendrites?

Conduct impulses to cell bodies through graded potential

T/F Dendrites are located in the receptive or input region?

True

Short highly branched process of the neuron are called _____.

Dendrites

T/F Dendrites use Graded Potential?

True

The long proces of the neuron is called the _____?

Axon

T/F the axon can be up to 10ft. long?

False - 3 to 4 feet long

The axon transmits signal _____ from the cell body?

Away

T/F the axon makes up most of the length of the neuron?

True

Branches off the main axon are called ____?

Axon Collaterals

T/F Axons will not greatly branch at the terminal end?

False- will greatly branch

The connection point between the cell body and the axon is called ____?

Axon Hillock

T/F The axon Hillock is branched?

False

Where is the connection point btween the cell body and the axon located?

Axon Hillock

The axon terminal is at the ____ tip of the axon?

Distal

The main function of the axon terminal is to? two things

hold and release neurontransmitter

T/F axon terminals will connect to other neurons at snapses?

True

T/F axon terminals are connected to the dendrites?

False - distal tip of the axon

Fatty segments layered around the axon are called?

Myelin Sheaths

T/F Myelin sheaths are pink or red in color?

False - they appear white

myelin sheaths are elecric insulators which make impulses conduct? (Faster/Slower)

Faster

T/F Myelin sheaths are made the same way in both the PNS and CNS?

False -Schwann cells in the PNS Oligodendrocytes in CNS

T/F Schwann cells can wap around axons up to 200 times?

True

What are the gaps between myelin sheaths called?

Nodes of Ranvier

T/F In the CNS the gaps between myelin sheaths are called Oligodendrocytes?

True

T/F Nervous tissue that looks whote to the naked eye is called gray matter?

False - White matter

What are myelinated nervous fibers called?

White matter

Unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies are called_____?

Gray matter

T/F Gray matter is nervous tissue that looks gray to the naked eye?

True

A nucleus can be defined as?

a group of neuron cell bodies in the CNS

What is a group neuron cell bodies in the CNS called?

Nucleus

What is a group of cell bodies in the PNS called?

Ganglion

T/F a Ganglion is a group of cell bodies in the CNS?

False- PNS

What is a bundle of neuron extensions in the CNS called?

Tract

Where is a bundle of neuron extension in the CNS usually found?

Axons

T/F A tract is group of cell bodies in the CNS?

False - neuron extensions

What is a bundle of neuron extension in the PNS called?

nerve

A nerve is made up of mostly _____.

axons

What is the function of Interneurons?

Connect sensory and motor neurons

T/F Interneurons connect to the CNS?

False do not connect to or from the CNS

Where are interneurons found?

PNS

T/F interneurons are not very common?

False - very common

Where is the charge transfered from in man-made electricity?

Electron

T/F electrons transfer electricity in the human body?

False - man-made electricity

Charged particles are called ______ in the human body?

Ions

How is electricity transfered in the body?

With ions

What are the four charged ions that transfer electricity in the human body?

Na+
K+
Ca++
Cl

What is voltage?

the measure of the potential energy of separated charges

T/F voltage can separate using plasma membranes?

True

What would an example of voltage be?

The height of a waterfall

Whate are the four basic principles of electricity?

Voltage
Current
Resistance
Ohms Law

Current is the measure of the flow of charged particles from _____ ___ to ___.

One point to another

T/F current is measured in Amperes?

True

The measure of the flow of charged particles from one point to another is called?

Current

What is resistance?

The opposition to the flow of ions

Resistance is measured in ?

Ohms

T/F High resistance means it is harder for ions to flow ?

True

If current is having a hard time formn then resistance is _____(high/Low)?

High

The opposition to the flow of ions is?

Resistance

The formula for Ohms law is?

V=IR

T/F Ohms law shows the relationship between voltage, current and resistance?

True

Current is formed when ____ happens?

A channel is opened and charged particles flow

T/F If current (I) is formed, voltage(V) has to change?

True

T/F current change is easier to track than voltage change?

False- voltage is easier to track

Voltage changes if _____ is formed?

Current

If a channel is opened and charged particles flow _______ is formed?

Current

What are the three types of gated channels?

Voltage gated
Chemically gated
Mechanically gated

Ions (charged particles) _______ (can/cannot) pass through membranes on thier own?

cannot - need protien channels

T/F All channels are always open?

False- some are always open, and some require something to open/close

Once gated channels are open, what do ions move along?

Concentration gradient and/or Electrical gradient

T/F Ions only move along the Electrical gradient when gated channels are open?

False - Both concentration and electrical gradients

What is the Electrochemical gradient?

The influence on ion movement based on the combination of electrical and chemical gradients

T/F The electromagnetic gradient influences the movemnt of ions?

False- Electrochemical gradient

T/F Intracellular and Extracellular fluids are electrically neutral?

True

What changes the electrical charge in intracellular and extracellular fluids?

The amount of Na+ and K+ inside or outside the membrane

Resting potential (voltage) is created at about ___ mv?

-70

How do excitable cells communicate?

Membrane potentials

What are the two ways to change membrane potentials?

Change membrane permeability to any ion
alter ion concentration on either side of the membrane

T/F Memebrane potential cannot be changed?

False- can be changed

The reduction of membrane potential is called ____?

Depolarization

Hyperpolarization _____ membrane potential?

Increases

Hyperpolarization makes membrane potential (more/less) negative?

More

How does depolarization affect membrane potential?

Becomes less negative

T/F Graded potential is a long lived, local membrane disturbance?

False - Short lived

T/F Graded potential can occur in either Hyperpolarization or Depolarization?

True

In graded potential current_____ with distance?

Decreases

When do graded potentials occur?

When environmental change near the neutron causes gated ion channels to open

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