the science of behavior and mental processes
study peoples behavior and try to modify it
Approach that states that behavior reflects unconscious internal conflict between inherited instincts and society's behavioral rules
focuses on how the individual's behavior and mental processes are affected by interactions with other people
a therapist who deals with mental and emotional disorders
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
The third of Freud's psychosexual development in which genitals are the source of pleasure and the Oedipus Complex begins
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
In Freud's personality theory, the result of an unsatisfactory experience at the second stage that can include being withholding (of mental and emotional resources) being compulsively cautious about keeping things clean and in order, or being overly messy and disorganized
Objective Personality Test
A generic term for psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on measurable techniques such as true false in tests such as the MMPI-2
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests - originally designed to identify emotional disorders
Projective Personality Test
A type of personality test in which individuals are asked to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli (i.e. inkblot, or Rorschach test). Many psychologists like to use these tests because they allow clients to open up and talk.
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.
One set of data values increase as the other set decreases.
an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested
a fake drug used in the testing of medication
a research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
Ethical Principles of Psychology
receive informed consent, debrief, minimize harm/discomfort/deception, keep confidentiality, allow participants to withdraw
Central Nervous System
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate a new electric signal
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
division of cerebrum that is associated with visual processing
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
a broad transverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
hemisphere of brain that specializes in visual-spatial processing and quick thinking (abstract)
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla (except smell)
hammer; first of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
anvil; middle of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
stirrup; last of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
Opponent Process Theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
The Blind Spot
at the point where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye, headed for the visual cortex, there are no rods and cones and thus no receptors for vision.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
sense of smell
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
The process by which small elements become perceptually grouped into larger objects.
monocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further away
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
Depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective available to either eye alone
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
use the whole (context/experience) to fill in the elements (not always accurate)
use individual parts to form whole (individual letters to learn word)
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed
a defense mechanism in which unacceptable energies are directed into socially admirable outlets, such as art
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
branching extensions of neuron that receives messages from neighboring neurons
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
studies the process of thought and knowledge
part of the brain nearest the spinal cord which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
organizes motivational & emotional response patterns, especially if related to aggression & fear