Alternative Versions of Genes
Cause variations in inherited characteristics among offspring.
One point on a gene with different versions of the gene.
An organism inherits one allele from each parent.
Law of Segregation
If the parent has two of the same alleles, then the offspring will all get that version of the gene, but if the parent has two different alleles for a gene each offspring has a 50% chance of getting one of the two alleles.
Law of Independent Assortment
Each pair of alleles will segregate independently during gamete formation
Done to determine if an individual showing a dominant trait is homozygous or heterozygous.
the property of a gene that causes it to have multiple phenotypic effects.
Marker Assisted Selection
Indirect selection process where a trait of interest is selected not based on the trait itself but on a marker linked to it
Start with genetically pure parent generation
Individuals that exhibit one trait however are heterozygous.
Looking at 2 Traits
Multiply the probabilities of one specific combination of alleles to be with another. Then add up total chance of the same products.
Many heritable characters are not determined by only one gene with two alleles.
Dominant Allele shows only.
Both phenotypes are visible.
Blood Type. Most genes exist in populations in more that two allelic forms.
A gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus. In Example, a gene controls whether or not a color pigment can be deposited regardless of whether the gene for color is dominant or recessive.
Vary among a population. Such as Height.
Lots of genes control one trait. In example, Skin Color.
Norm of Reaction
Phenotypic Range of a genotype influenced by the environment.
Family Tree that represents phenotypes and genotypes.
The liquid that bathes the fetus is removed and tested
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
A sample of the placenta is removed and tested