Treaty of 1868
Treaty signed after the massacre of Fetterman's troops by the Sioux Indians. The government abandoned the construction of the Bozeman trail, and guaranteed the "Great Sioux reservation" to the Indians. This treaty was violated when the US govt began to remove Indians from Paha Sapa.
George Armstrong Custer
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876). Led Seventh Calvary against the Indians.
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died. AKA "Custer's Last Stand".
Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse
Led their people to victory over Custer's Soldiers.
Battle of Wounded Knee
(December 29, 1890) US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Wrote "A Century of Dishonor"
Dawes Act of 1887
Native Americans were to be "Americanized", tribes dissolved, each head of family was given 160 acres and the remaining portions of the reservations were to be sold
Bought two-thirds of the land belonging to Indians.
Equipment & Instructions
The lack of these two items resulted in the failure of Indian farms.
Poor Public Health Services
This caused many Indian deaths on reservations.
Plains Indians Resented the Whites because...
a) Settlers took Indian land
b) Hunters killed their buffalo
c) Communities disrupted buffalo migratory paths
d) Traders and govt officials cheated/robbed/lied to Indians
Science & Invention Aid Settlement
a) Fences (barbed wire) were welcome
b) Irrigation through windmills
c) Hard strains of winter wheat
d) Iron plow (James Oliver)
Homestead Act of 1862
Offered a free 160-acre farm to any settler who would cultivate it for five years
Morrill Land Grant
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
invented barbed wire
invented the steel plow
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Act passed by Congress that abolished previous state governments and set up 5 temporary military districts run by Union generals.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states.
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Resulted in Prohibited segregation in all Public Facilities and discrimination in education and employment
Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
1890 - In order to vote in Mississippi, citizens had to display the receipt which proved they had paid the poll tax and pass a literacy test by reading and interpreting a selection from the Constitution. Prevented blacks, who were generally poor and uneducated, from voting.
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
A federal law, passed during Lyndon Johnson's presidency, that authorized federal action against segregation in public accomodations, public facilities, and employment.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise
1) Remove military from South
2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general)
3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
....as long as Hayes became the president
1870-71 Three acts passed by Congress allowing the government to use military force to stop violence against former slaves by the KKK. 1) penalized anyone who restricted another's right to vote
2) required all elections to be monitored by Federal officials and marshals
3) allowed the suspension of habeas corpus for Klansmen.
All persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the country
Protect black suffrage
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
Susan B. Anthony
Key leader of woman suffrage movement
Sand Creek Massacre
1864 attack in which as many as 200 Cheyenne were killed by the Colorado militia
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
Chief Dull Knife
led a group of survivors from Little Big Horn but they were imprisoned by the army; after refusing to move to a reservation, led an escape where many were killed
Pacific Railroad Act
Called for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad to stretch across America connecting California and the rest of America.
Oklahoma Land Rush
1889; former Indian lands opened up for settlement, resulting in a race to lay claim for a homestead (Boomers and Sooners)
Curtis Act of 1898
terminated the Indian governments and allotment proceeded in the remained of Indian territory
this act passed in 1887 destroyed the temporal power of the Mormon church by confiscating all assets over $50,000 and establishing a federal commission to oversee all elections in the territory
George Perkins Marsh
An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
Fredrick Jackson Turner
Wrote "Frontier Thesis"