Thirty Years' War
1618 to 1648 in Europe/"war of religion"/Germany, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, France
Treaty of Westphalia
1648/ended the Thirty Years' War/set stage for the development of modern Europe/made permanent religious changes that had come to Europe since the Protestant Reformation/local rulers could determine faith/signaled decline of the papacy/recognized indipendence of swiss confederacy and united Provinces of Holland
local leaders could choose rulers
treaty of westphalia paved the way for this in European politics
sprang from the United Povices of Holland after the Treaty of Westphalia
strongest after the Thirty Years' War/core of present day Germany
Frederick William/Frederick I/Frederick William I
1640-1688/1688-1713/1713-1740/Great Elector/laid foundation on which the powerful German nation would be built
Prussia's nobles, who were given exemptions from taxes and whose rights over serf labor were established in law
organized bureaucracy in Prussia. staffed by nobles and by professionals who came from common stock
Prussia powerful army
thirty thousand men in 1690 to eighty thousand in 1740
contained many radically different ethnic and religious groups. many Muslims. had Austria's Hapsburg monarchy. net ever very stable.
came under rule of Austria's Hapsburg monarchy as a result of Hungary's liberation from the Ottoman Turkish
linguistic, cultural and political differences in Austro-Hungaria
military not functioned smoothly becuse of linguistic, cultural and political differences.
emphasized the complete authority of a nation's ruler
argued for absolutism in his book called Leviathan. belived in absolute authority becuase people greedy. symbolic of increasing secularizatioin in Europe
advocated absolutism. tutor to Louis XIV. argued from a religious point of view in Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Scripture. King is from God.
kings are choosen by God. Bishop Bossuet
france's powerful secretray of state and chief minister to Louis XIII
a ruler couuld rule only so long as he or she kept the people's trust. did this by respecting human rights to life, liberty and property
came to throne in France in 1661. censored books and tortured political opponents. promoted sience
Louis XIV conducted elaborate rituals here in Paris
Louis XIV never convened this which is a weak medieval French representative institution that had not convened since 1614.
Holy roman Empire
corresponds to present-day central Europe
Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV revoked this in 1685. had allowed for some religious tolerance, but after revoked chased many of France;s highly skilled Protestants, the Huguenots out of the country
fled from France to England and Austria to enjoy Pretestant religous freedom.
1688 in England. bloodless
believed that he ruled England by divine right and never gave gifts to noble or parliment
in response to raise money to for war against Spain without Parliament's consent the parliament passed the Petition of Rights in 1628
Petition of Right
1628. claimed that English subjects possessed basic rights that no king could trample on.
English Civl War
1640's. roundheads forces of parliment. cavaliers forces of king
New Model Army
led by Oliver Cromwell
bill of rights
1. denied the power of a monarch to pass laws without parliament's consent 2. protected people from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments 3. gave england's residents the right to address their grievances to the government.