History Midterm Exam

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Boston Massacre

3/5/1770 5 colonists were killed. Revere's engraving caused people to think about independence

Burning of the Gaspee

6/9/1772 Gaspee was designed to catch smugglers. R.I. had the best counterfeiters, smugglers, pirates, etc... The Gaspee ran aground chasing the Hannah
Took everyone off the ship and burned it = Treason

Boston Tea Party

12/16/1773 Massachusetts was punished with the Intolerable Acts

Signed The Declaration of Independence

7/4/1776 A letter to England saying we were breaking away and it politely said why.

U.S. Constitution

1787 The Document that set up our government

The Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution

Causes of the Civil War

Slaves, Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stowe, Tariffs, Kansas Nebraska Act, Bleeding Kansas, Sharles Sumner, Dred Scott, Harper's Ferry and the election of 1860.

Kansas Nebraska Act

Repealed the Missouri Compromise and allowed Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether or not the two states would have slaves through popular sovereignty. People began to move into Kansas and Nebraska to sway the vote. The act brought full on abolitionists and full on supporters of slavery together.

Bleeding Kansas

John Brown and his sons who hated slavery, broke into a person who was pro-slavery and killed 5 people with hatchets, the north supported this while the south hated it.

Charles Sumner

White man from Massachusetts, senator, anti-slavery. Was beaten unconscious with a cane on the floor of Congress by Preston Brooks because of comments Sumner made about his Uncle.

Dred Scott

An enslaved man that lived in Missouri filed suit against his owner because he had once lived in a state where slavery was illegal, so he was free. The Supreme Court ruled seven to two against him because he was black and wasn't a citizen so he had no right to sue. He was private property and property cannot be lost based on where you go.

Harper's Ferry

John Brown had planned to seize weapons from an arsenal to give to slaves so they could rise up but was surrounded and forced to surrender by soldiers under Robert E. Lee, Brown was executed and became a martyr for abolitionists.

The Election of 1860

Lincoln won, and said that he wasn't going to touch Southern slavery to keep the country together. He wasn't even on the ballot in 10 southern states. He won in November and took over in March. Right after he won, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Lincoln could not do anything and seven states left before he became president.

Civil War

1861-1865 Fighting began in Fort Sumter

Fort Sumter

War surrounded by South Carolina. Lincoln sent in supplies and the South attacked

Northern Strategies

Capture Richmond Virginia, block southern ports, and capture the Mississippi River

Southern Goals

Right until the north was tired of fighting

First Battle of Bull Run

It was the first major land battle of the civil war and a major defeat for the union. As the union crossed the Bull Run stream, the Confederates routed the Union forces. The Union lost 3,000 men while the Confederates only lost 2,000. It was won through Southern tactics and proved the civil war was going to be long and drawn out.

The Battle of Antietam

General Lee had invaded the Union and had entered Maryland. McClellan had found Lee's plans and decided to go after Lee. The battle was fought at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Union had about 75,000 soldiers with another 25,000 in reserve. Against 40,000 Confederates. The Union lost 12,000 while the Confederates lost 14,000. The Union won the battle and the Confederates retreated. It was the bloodiest day of the war.

Vicksburg

April-July 4th 1863 A confederate defended town on a bluff over the Mississippi River. The Union won and took control of the Mississippi.

Battle of Gettysburg

Was fought in Pennsylvania (Union) and lasted from July 1st to July 3rd 1863. The Union won the battle. The Confederacy would never attack on Union soil. It was the bloodies battle of the Civil War.

Pickett's Charge

General Pickett was a Confederate General and he and the Confederates charged across an open field and the Confederates were massacred.

Gettysburg Address

November 1863, dedicated the battlefield

Emancipation Proclamation

It freed all slaves in Confederate territory, this meant the war was partially being fought over slavery. It was done to keep Great Britain out of the war and keep them from siding with the Confederates.

Total War

Destroy everything belonging to the enemy

Sherman's March to the Sea

Destroyed everything from Atlanta to Savannah to the Ocean. Made life horrible for the enemy to force surrender.

General Robert E. Lee Surrenders

He surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant on April 1st 1865.

Aftermath of the Civil War

620,000 Americans died and the union lost more soldiers. Most died from disease; dysentery which causes dehydration and diarrhea. In operating rooms, they had no antibiotics, vitamins/supplements, x-rays, transfusions and little anesthesia.

What was the purpose of the war?

Union: to preserve the union.
Confederacy: States rights

Reconstruction

The period of putting the country back together after the civil war.

Lincoln's Assassination

April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth. Booth was an actor in the play. He had killed Lincoln by shooting him in the back of the head.

Andrew Johnson

He became the 17th president when Lincoln was assassinated. Johnson was a democrat, even though Lincoln was a republican.

Radical Republicans

People who wanted to punish the south for seceding from the union by giving former slaves land from their former owners, making blacks citizens and imprisoning confederate leaders. They were in control of congress during Andrew Johnson's presendency

Andrew Johnson's Impeachment

He was impeached for firing the secretary of war without the permission of congress. He was impeached but fell one vote short of removal.

Pardon

The Presidential power to excuse a person from a federal crime. Andrew Johnson pardoned 13,000 people in 1865.

13th Ammendment

End of Slavery (1865).

14th Ammendment

Made blacks citizens, and said that all citizens must be treated equally (1868).

15th Ammendment

The right to vote cannot be denied on account of race.

The South Kept Blacks from Voting

They used literacy tests, poll taxes, history tests, the grandfather clause (cannot vote unless your grandfather voted), and the KKK (The Ku Klux Klan).

The Ku Klux Klan

It was founded on Christmas Eve, 1865, by a group of drunk, white southerners. The group was formed to commemorate dead Confederate Soldiers. They wore white ghost costumes and tormented and killed blacks when they registered to vote. Some symbols of the KKK include their robes, hoods, the noose and the burning of the cross.

Supreme Court Defined 14th Amendment

In 1883, the Supreme Court said that the 14th Amendment only applies to states. People can discriminate.

Westward Expansion

1862, Congress passed the Railroad Act, which set up the building of the Transcontinental Railroad. One company would begin in California and the other company would begin in Nebraska. The two companies met in Promontory Point, Utah. As an incentive, Congress paid the companies by mile.

How the Railroad helped the economy

Travel, land was purchased, more jobs, more steel and iron workers, more lumberjacks, more coal miners, and it opened up new markets for products (crops could be shipped and sold across the country).

Negatives of the Railroad

Pollution, more issues with the Native Americans, and before a national system of time zones was implemented, train scheduling was confusing because towns independently set clocks using solar time.

Trail of Tears

It was part of the Indian Removal Process. In 1836, the Creeks were removed from their land and sent to Oklahoma. 3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks died on the way to Oklahoma. The Cheyenne had signed a treaty to go to Oklahoma, but only 2000 originally agreed to go. The US Government sent in 7000 soldiers to remove the remaining Cheyenne. The Cherokees were also moved to Oklahoma.

Levi Strauss

He made denim pants and sold them to people panning and mining for gold.

Plessy vs. Ferguson

The incident occurred in 1892 and the trial took place in 1896. The issue occurred when a Creole of Colors sat in a whites only car of an East Louisiana Railroad train car. Homer Plessy had deliberately referred to himself as black. Louisiana had decided to pass a law that made segregation of railways legal and a civil rights organization decided to challenge the law. The trial went all the way to the Supreme Court, where Plessy lost the trial 7 - 1 with one abstention. The Supreme Court ruled that segregation by color or race was legal as long as all races were treated equally.

The Black Codes

Laws that created virtual slavery for blacks, including curfews, vagrancy laws, labor contracts and land restrictions. This was the South's way of keeping blacks "in their place."

Carpet Baggers

Northern republicans who moved to the south after the Civil War.

Scalawags

Former Whigs who opposed secession or white southern republicans.

Sharecropping

When someone works on a portion of someone else's in return for the same portion of the crop. The people that usually did this were former slaves.

The Presidential Election of 1876

In the election, 3 states had disputed results because of corruption and cheating in the election. After the dispute, the compromise of 1876 made the republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, president over the democratic candidate, Sam Tilden.

The Compromise of 1877

The compromise made Hayes president, removed the remaining federal troops from the south, gave money for rebuilding, ended Reconstruction, and Hayes agreed to put some democrats on his cabinet. By ending Reconstruction, things were worse for blacks.

Booker T. Washington

He wanted blacks to accept racism as long as whites treated them fairly. This was the Atlanta Compromise. He also said that there was nothing wrong with a blue-collar job.

The Homestead Act

It gave people who paid a fee 160 acres as long as they were 21 or head of the family, were citizens or were about to become citizens. The recipient had to build a house and farm the land for 5 years before they received the land.

The Sand Creek Masacre

They Cheyenne Tribe camped out at Sand Creek, Colorado, when Colonel John Chivington and 700 soldiers slaughtered between 150 and 500 Cheyenne. The victims were mostly women and children and they were killed while they were trying to surrender.

The Battle of Little Big Horn

In 1865, the government enraged the Sioux tribe by building a road through their territory, causing a two year war. In 1866, the Sioux killed more than 80 soldiers. Long after the end of the two year war, Colonel Custer claimed their was gold in the Sioux's Black Hills. Custer went to round up the Sioux and was engaged by more than 2000 Sioux warrior who easily defeated Custer's 264 soldiers. This battle was also known as Custer's Last Stand. After the battle, the US Army was sent in to push the Sioux back onto their reservation.

The Battle of Wounded Knee

After Sitting Bull was arrested, 120 men and 230 women and children from the the Sioux Tribe surrendered. While they were being disarmed, a shot was fired and the soldiers opened fire, killing 300 Sioux. This was the last real episode of violence between the Native Americans and the United States.

The Ghost Dance

The dance was part of a Native American purification ceremony where people joined hands and whirled in a circle. It made the Americans think that the Native Americans were restless and about to attack. The Native Americans were calling on spirits for help against the whites.

Chief Joseph

The leader of Nez Perce Tribe (Northwestern US, Oregon and Idaho). Chief Joseph had promised his dying father to never give up his land. Chief Joseph went on the run, trying to get to Canada, and was caught 30 miles from the border. He was sent to Oklahoma with the rest of his Tribe.

The Dawes Act

It divided reservation land into individual plots (about 160 acres). Native Americans who were the head of their family received a plot. The act offered Native Americans citizenship and set up schools to educate them. They hated the act because they did not want to be Americanized.

Cow Towns

A town that was based upon the industry of receiving and slaughtering cattle and shipping beef. The first Cow Town was Abilene, Kansas.

The Jungle

A book written by Upton Sinclair, that was about the horrible conditions of the meat-packing industry. The book was realistic fiction and took place in Chicago. The factory would mix spoiled meat with the good meat, the roof leaked into the food, it was infested with insects and roaches, rats would get into the meat vats, and fingers and other lost body parts would be ground into the meat. After Theodore Roosevelt read this book, he began reform.

Drake's Folly

The first attempt to drill for oil was made in Titusville, Pennsylvania by Edwind Drake. The attempt was known as Drake's Folly, but turned out successfully.

The Bessemer Process

A fast and cheaper way to turn iron into steel. The process, developed by Henry Bessemer, allowed for the mass production of steel.

Social Darwinism

The government should not interfere with businesses and weak businesses will go bankrupt and strong businesses will profit.

Monopoly

When one company controls all of a product/service or when a business has no competition.

Vertical Consolidation

When one business controls all steps in the creation of a product.

The Sherman Antitrust Act

It outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce, but was ineffective for 15 years. It also made it illegal to limit or eliminate competition, making it illegal to form a monopoly.

Communism

Karl Marx came up with this system: The government would own all of the businesses eliminating the filthy rich and the extremely poor, making everyone economically equal.

The Communist Manifesto

It stated that the wealthy were too powerful and the middle class needed to turn this around.

Unions

Unions were fighting for shorter work days, higher wages and safer working conditions.

Haymarket Square Riot

In 1886, in Chicago, people gathered to demonstrate for an 8 hour workday. When the demonstration became too big, the police tried to break up the crowd and resorted to violence. The demonstration the next day was against police brutality. Someone threw a bomb killing 11 people, 7 of which were police. Unions were blamed, 8 people were arrested and 7 were hanged.

The Homested Strike

In Pennsylvania, Henry Frick cut wages in the Carnegie Steel Company (Carnegie was in Scotland) causing the workers to go on strike. Frick then hired scabs, or people who take the jobs of strikers. He then hired the Pinkertons (a private security agency) to protect the new workers. A riot occurred when the scabs tried to enter the factory. 7 Pinkertons and 9 strikers were killed.

The Pullman Strike

In June, 1894, 260,000 Railway workers joined the Pullman Strike. The strike started one month earlier. The American Railway Union Started, which began the strike, resulted in the union gaining 150,000 new members. The strike began because wages were cut and workers could not afford the rent and prices in factory towns which were controlled by the factory owners. Because of the wage cuts, other union refused to work on any trains that had Pullman cars. The strike ended when railway owners argued defied antitrust laws. Grover Cleveland then sent in 2,500 federal troops because the strike disrupted the mail service.

Industrialization

In the late 1800's, big corporations began to form.

Patent

The exclusive right to a product. Patents last about 7 years to prevent monopolies.

Corporation

A company owned by stock holders.

Limited Liability

If a corporation gets sued, the owners are not personally responsible.

Union

When workers unite to get their demands met.

Immigration

Immigrants were mostly poor, uneducated, and unskilled. Before 1880, most immigrants were from Western Europe (70% Irish, English, etc...). After 1880, most immigrants were from Eastern Europe, (Italians, Russians, etc...), and spoke different languages.

Irish Immigrants

First Wave, mostly Catholic, were discriminated against because of religion, when the US was mostly Protestant.

Ellis Island

Under the Statue of Liberty. The statue came from France in 1886. Some were quarantined. The US took names and number of family members. American was seen as the land of opportunity, but most struggled. Many changed their family name to hide the fact that they were immigrants.

The Irish Potato Famine: 1846 - 49

The Irish could not grow potatoes because of a fungus. 1 million died and 2 million left out of the 4 - 5 million living in Ireland

Ethnic Neighborhoods

An area dominated by one ethnic group. They made transitions easier.

Problems caused by immigration

Overcrowding, crime, pollution.

Big Industries

Railroad: Cornelius Vanderbilt
Steel: Andrew Carnegie
Oil: John Rockefeller

Gilded Age

A term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction. Prosperity covered up poverty and corruption.

Waving the Bloody Shirt

This meant recalling the bloodshed of the Civil War; republicans reminding the population that the democrats started the Civil War.

The Spoils System

The winner of an election that helps the people that got him elected. This caused unqualified people to get important jobs.

Inflation

A period of increasing prices.

Counterfitting

It is illegal because it adds more money to the economy and increases inflation. The Secret Service was created to stop this.

The Wizard of Oz

Kid's Story and Political Commentary

Scarecrow

No brain - The American farmer.

Tin Man

No heart - American Industry

Cowardly Lion

No courage - William Jennings Bryan

Emerald City

Fix problems - Washing DC

Yellow Brick Road

Coining Gold - Gold Standard

Silver Slippers (originally)

Coining Silver

Oz

Ounces - Measuring gold and silver

Dorothy

Wanted to go home, but could solve her own problems all along.

Wizard

William McKinley

Wicked Witch of the West

Death by Water: Drought - water solves problems.

Struggles of the Farmer

Overproduction, drought, tariffs: Import taxes, importing machinery, railroads: No competition.

National Grange

A political organization formed by American farmers

Populist Party

Wanted coining silver, wanted the government to control railroads and an 8 hour work day.

Muckraker

People who wrote about problems. For example: Upton Sinclair - The Jungle

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

A small fire broke out inside the factory and when the workers tried to escape, they found that doors were locked from the outside killing 146 workers. Led to the creation of building safety, regulation and fire code enforcement.

Inventions

Telegraph & Morse Code (Samuel F. B. Morse); Phonograph (Thomas A. Edison); Light bulb (Thomas A. Edison); Telephone (Alexander Graham Bell)

Improvement of Electricity

Alternating Current (George Westinghouse);
Impact on Business and Daily Life - Improved productivity and transformed the nature of the workplace.

The Electric Sewing Machine

First made in 1899; Led to the growth of the ready-made clothing industry. Before the electric machine, workers had to physically push on a foot petal to generate power. With AC, a worker could produce more clothing in less time. As a result, the cost of producing each item of clothing decreased. Rapidly growing industries opened up thousands of jobs for Americans looking for employment. (Immigrants, especially women and children found jobs here.)

Refrigerator

It was made possible and available by AC power. This invention reduced spoilage, and relieved the need to preserve foods by time-consuming means, such as smoking or salting; Not available to all Americans. Rural areas did not receive power for decades. Even when available, people could not afford the home appliances or other conveniences that ran on electricity.

Communication

One of the greatest hardships of immigrants was leaving loved ones behind. By 1900, thanks to many advances, such fears of isolation had diminished.

Tenements

Lost-cost apartment buildings designed to house as many families as the owner could pack in. An area could be turned into a slum because of groups of these that are run-down and dirty.

Dumbbell Tenements

Named for its shape, each building narrowed in the middle and gaps on either side formed air shafts to bring light and air to inside rooms because of NY law. However, people would throw their garbage in the middle because little fresh air reached them. Linked to diseases such as cholera and typhoid to contaminated drinking water, which residents drew from a common pipe or pump in the yard.

City Water

Boston, Cincinnati and New York built reservoirs or water works to collect clean water far from the cities and filter impurities. Companies later introduced chlorination and filtration.

Political Machine

An unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power and usually headed by a single, powerful "boss".

Graft

The use of one's job to gain profit and was used as a major source of income for political machines.

The Money Question

Money used to be backed by gold. You could exchange money for gold. The question was whether or not to coin silver.

Coining Silver

People, especially farmers, began to demand "coining silver". The government could produce more money and when there is too much money, its value decreases. The farmers wanted to artificially create inflation.

Cross of Gold Speech

This speech, given by William Jennings Bryan, a populist and the democratic candidate in the election of 1896, was given at the 1896 Democratic Convention in Chicago. "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." This speech caused him to earn the nomination from both the democrats and the populists.

Oligopoly

A market structure, which is dominated by only a few large, profitable firms.

Cartel

A loose association of businesses that make the same product that would agree to limit the supply of their product to keep prices high.

Horizontal Consolidation

The bringing together of many firms in the same business. This method was practiced by John D. Rockefeller.

Trust

A group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board.

Piecework

System in which workers are paid not by the time worked, but by the number of items they produced.

Sweatshop

A shop where employees worked long hours at low wages and under poor working conditions.

Division of Labor

Way of producing in which different tasks are performed by different people. Factory workers would usually perform one small task over and over and over again, and rarely saw the finished product.

Socialism

An economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private control of the means of production.

Craft Union

A union for laborers devoted to a specific craft. Rather than organizing all workers, they sought to organize only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions.

Collective Bargaining

The process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers. Workers acting as a group had more power than a single worker acting alone.

Closed Shop

To strengthen collective bargaining power, some unions pushed for a workplace where only union members would be hired.

Industrial Union

Union that organizes workers from all crafts in a given industry. The primary purpose of these were to protect the wages and rights of all the employees, skilled or unskilled.

Anarchists

Radicals who oppose all government.

Push-Pull Factors

Events and conditions that either force (push) people to move elsewhere or strongly attract (pull) them to do so.

Morrill Land-Grant Act

This law passed by Congress in 1862 distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.

Land Speculator

A person who buys up large areas of land in the hope in selling them later for a profit.

Exodusters

An African American who migrated to the west after the Civil War. 50,000 or more went west during this time period.

Reservations

Federal lands set aside for Native Americans.

Assimilation

The process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture.

Boomers

Settlers who ran in land races to claim land upon the 1889 opening of Indian Territory for settlement.

Sooners

People who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began in 1889.

Placer Mining

A mining technique in which miners shoveled loose dirt into boxes and then ran water over the dirt to separate it from gold or silver particles.

Homesteaders

One who farmed claims under the Homestead Act.

Soddie

A home made out of sod, that was made from blocks of sod and could be made for about $10.

Bonanza Farms

Farms controlled by large businesses, managed by professionals, and raising massive quantities of single cash crops.

Turner Thesis

1893 theory of Frederick Jackson Turner that claimed the frontier had played a key role in forming the American character.

Stereotypes

An exaggerated or oversimplified description of reality held by a number of people.

Deflation

A drop in the prices of goods.

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