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Yalta Conference

Feb 1945
1. Germany was split into four zones
2. Free elections in countries occupied by Germany
3. UN would replace LON

Problems at Yalta

1. Stalin did not hold free elections in Poland
2. USA did not want to give USSR loans for reparations without being able to supply goods to Eastern Europe soviet-controlled countries
3. America did not pay in coal like Stalin wanted, they used the coal for reparations
4. USSR exploited their zone (selling of food went directly to the Soviet Union

Big Three at Yalta

Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin

Big Three at Potsdam

Truman, Attlee, Stalin

Potsdam Conference

August 1945
1. New boundaries in Poland
2. Allies divided Germany AND Berlin between them
3. Legal trials for Nazi leaders were agreed

Berlin Blockade

1948 - 1949

Berlin Airlift

June 1948 - May 1949

German Federal Republic

West Germany

German Democratic Republic

East Germany

NATO

1949
North
Atlantic
Treaty
Organisation

Warsaw Pact

USSR and satellite nations mutual defense alliance

Korean War

1950
Communist North had Civil War against South Korea, USA took it personally

Steps of Korean War

September 1950 : NK driven past the 38th Parallel
November 1950 : China attacks
February 1951 : Seoul captured
1953 : cease-fire

Domino Theory

If one country is taken over by Communism, nearby countries would follow

Vietnam War

President Johnson (1963), President Nixon (1969)
War to keep South Vietnam Communist-free

Tet Offensive

Vietcong launched a major attack on towns and villages

My Lai

1968, Massacre of Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers

Nixon

1969

Vietnamisation

Training South Vietnamese forces to fight NVA

Cease-fire in Vietnam

Janurary 1973

End of Vietnam War

1975 with the fall of Saigon

Cuban Missile Crisis

1959 - Castro comes to power
1. Cuba was only 100 miles from America
2. Castro didn't want an American Influence
3. Cuban rebels invaded without US airforce as promised (Bay of Pigs) April 1961
4. Soviet Nuclear Missles shipped to Cuba

Afghanistan

1979
USSR invaded to prevent downfall of the pro-Soviet regime planned by Mujahideen
1980
US boycotts Moscow Games

Ronald Reagan

1981
right-wing, anti-societ
Called USSR "evil empire"

Fall of Communism

1989 (Gorbachev)
Berlin Wall came down
Free elections in Poland
1990
Germany reunified

Gorbachev

1985
Glasnost (openness)
Perestroika (economic restructuring)

Glasnost

1. Political prisoners were released
2. People were informed about Stalin's misdeeds
3. Free speech
4. Conscription was abolished

Perestroika

A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society

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