ISM exam 2

Created by Danielle_Brunat 

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80 terms

Concept of goal seeking

used to find an unknown value that produces a desired result. new values in the variable cell to find a solution to the problem.

database as the heart of the system

is a central database that collects information from and feeds information into all the ERP system's individual application components (called modules), supporting diverse business functions such as accounting, manufacturing, marketing and human resources.

core components

included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations. accounting, finance, logistics ,production

extended components

extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations. business intelligence, customer relationship management, supply chain management, e-business

two major vendors of core components

oracle and sap

middleware

several different types of software that sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications.

EAI middleware

middleware represents a new approach to middleware by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors.

unstructured collaboration

(information collaboration) includes document exchange, shared whiteboards, discussion forums, and email. These functions can improve personal productivity, reducing the time spent searching for information or chasing answers.

structured collaboration

(process collaboration) involves shared participation in business processes, such as workflow, in which knowledge is hard-coded as rules. improves automation and the routing of information.

types of collaboration systems

knowledge management systems, workflow management systems, groupware systems

knowledge management systems

- supports the capturing, organization, and dissemination of knowledge (i.e know-how) throughout an organization. includes explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge.

explicit knowledge

consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of IT. ex: patents, trademarks.

tacit knowledge

is the knowledge contained in people's heads.

workflow management systems

defines all the steps or business rules, from beginning to end, required for a business process.

groupware systems

is software that supports team interaction and dynamics including calendaring, scheduling, and videoconferencing

content management systems

provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment.

common types of content management systems

document management systems (DMS), digital asset management system (DAM), web content management system (WCM)

document management systems (DMS)

- Supports the electronic capturing, storage, distribution, archiving, and accessing of documents.

digital asset management system (DAM)

similar to document management, generally works with binary rather than text files, such as multimedia file types.

web content management system (WCM)

Adds an additional layer to document and digital asset management that enables publishing content both to intranets and to public Web sites.

SOX "sarbanes-oxlley act of 2002"

enacted in response to the high profile Enron and WorldCom financial scandals to protect shareholders and the public from accounting errors and fraudulent practices by organizations. all business records, including electronic records and electronic messages, "must be saved for not less than five years."

benefits from sox

Boosts investors' confidence in the company, Standardized bookkeeping audits in its disparate businesses around the world, Greater confidence investors have in financial results

workplace monitoring

that an organization is placing itself at risk if it fails to monitor its employees; however, some people feel that monitoring employees is unethical.

information technology monitoring

tracking people's activities by such measures as number of key strokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed.

ethics

the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people. analyzing right from wrong; good from bad.

encryption

scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt the information.

privacy

The right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your own personal possessions, and not to be observed without your consent

condientiality

the assurance that message and information are available only to those who are authorized to view them

security policies and e-policies

Organizations strive to build a corporate culture based on ethical principles that employees can understand and implement.

ethical computer use policy

policy ensures all users are informed of the rules and, by agreeing to use the system on that basis, consent to abide by the rules.

acceptable use policy (AUP)

a policy that a user must agree to follow in order to be provided access to a network or to the Internet. a non-repudiation clause: participants agree not to deny their on-line actions.

spam

unsolicited e-mail.

intellectual property

Intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form.

software piracy

The unauthorized use, duplication, distribution or sale of copyrighted software.

counterfeit software

Software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.

information security lines of defense

1) people
2) technology

social engineering

using one's social skills to trick people into revealing access credentials or other information valuable to the attacker.

insiders

are legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting incident

authentication 3 types

1) somthing the user knows (password)
2) something the user has (smart card)
3) something that is part of the user (fingerprint)

spoofing

is the forging of the return address on an e-mail so that the e-mail message appears to come from someone other than the actual sender. not a virus but rather a way by which virus authors conceal their identities as the send out viruses.

copyrights

The legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, video game, and some types of proprietary documents.

the fair use doctrine

in certain situations, it is legal to use copyrighted material.

prevention and resistance

technologies stop intruders from accessing intellectual capital.

data

raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event.

information

is data converted into a meaningful and useful context.

characteristics of high quality information

accuracy, completeness, consistency, uniqueness, timeliness

why redundant data is sub-optimal

is it is often INCONSISTENT, which makes it difficult to determine which values are the most current or most accurate.

relational databases

is a type of database that stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables.

entity

is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.

an entity class

(often called a table) is a collection of similar entities.

attribute

also called fields or columns, are characteristics or properties of an entity class.

primary key

a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table.

foreign key

in the relational database model is a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables

data mining

is the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.

business intelligence

is information that people use to support their decision making efforts.

enabling business intelligence

technology, people, and culture

extraction, transformation and loading (ETL)

is a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse.

data mart

a subset of data warehouse information.

executive information systems (EIS)

is a specialized DSS (Decision Support System) that supports senior-level executives within the organization.

consolidation

involves the aggregation of information and features simple rollups to complex groupings of interrelated information.

drill down

enables users to view details, and details of details, of information.

slice and dice

the ability to look at information from different perspectives.

DSS

, models information to support managers and business professionals during the decision making process.

sensitivity analysis

the study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of the model have on other parts of the model.

what if analysis

checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution.

goal seeking analysis

finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output.

digital dashboard

integrate information from multiple components and tailor the information to individual preferences.

intelligent agents

a special purpose knowledge based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users.

AI systems

learn or understand from experience, make sense of ambiguous or contradictory information, and even use reasoning to solve problems and make decisions effectively.

neural networks

also called an artificial neural network, is a category of Artificial Intelligence that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works.

genetic algorithm

- is an artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem.

expert systems

are computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning process of experts in solving difficult problems.

OLAP (online analytical processing)

is the manipulation of information to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making.

OLTP (online transaction processing)

is the capturing of transaction and event information using technology to (1) process the information according to defined business rules, (2) store the information, and (3) update existing information to reflect the new information.

TPS (transaction processing systems)

is the basic business system that serves the operational level (analysts) in an organization.

transactional information

encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks.

business process modeling

the activity of creating a detailed flow chart or process map of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and activities, in a structured sequence

business process re-engineering

is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises.

customer relationship management (CRM)

Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability

supply chain management (SCM)

Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability.

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