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All questions from review sheets 7, 8, 9, 10.

Ethical concepts include:
A. right and wrong
B. good and bad
C. just and unjust
D. virtue and vice
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

The ethical theory that claims moral values depend on individual opinion or cultural norms is:
A. ethical absolutism
B. ethical relativism
C. ethical determinism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics

B. ethical relativism

The ethical theory that claims moral values apply to all people in all circumstances is:
A. ethical absolutism
B. ethical relativism
C. ethical determinism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics.

A. ethical absolutism

The ethical theory in which the individual determines what is right and wrong based on how they feel is:
A. ethical subjectivism
B. cultural relativism
C. ethical determinism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics

A. ethical subjectivism

The ethical theory in which what is considered right or wrong is dependent on societal acceptance is:
A. ethical absolutism
B. ethical determinism
C. cultural relativism
D. normative ethics
E. descriptive ethics

C. cultural relativism

The view that we are compelled by our psychological makeup to always pursue our own interest is:
A. ethical egoism
B. divine command theory
C. empathy
D. psychological egoism
E. none of the above

D. psychological egoism

The ethical theory that proposes we pursue our own happiness and self-interest is:
A. ethical egoism
B. divine command theory
C. empathy
D. psychological egoism
E. none of the above

A. ethical egoism

The ethical theory that proposes we act morally when we do what God commands us to do is:
A. ethical egoism
B. divine command theory
C. empathy
D. psychological egoism
E. none of the above

B. divine command theory

Ethical subjectivism is a recipe for moral anarchy. T or F

True

Cultural relativism commits the "naturalistic fallacy." T or F

True

Descriptive ethics addresses "what ought to be the case." T or F

False

Normative ethics addresses "what is the case." T or F

False

Ethical relativism denies the possibility of an absolute, universal ethics. T or F

True

For Rand, altruism and compassion are virtues. T or F

False

For Rand, selfishness is virtuous. T or F

True

Natural Law ethics is the view that universal moral values can be discovered in nature by using the faculty of reason. T or F

True

King, Jr. argued that civil disobedience is moral if it does not conflict with Human Law. T or F

False

There is no difference between studying morality and being a moral person. T or F

False

Studying the philosophy of religion is designed to turn all persons into atheists and engage persons in emotional arguments. T or F

False

Studying the philosophy of religion is designed to expand, enrich, and deepen your understanding of other religions. T or F

True

Arguments for the existence of God were presented to satisfy a desire for objective proof of a transcendent being. T or F

True

A theodicy is a defense of the justness or goodness of God in the face of doubts or objections arising from the problem of evil. T or F

True

Kierkegaard argued that the existence of God is knowable objectively. T or F

False

For Buddhists, all suffering emanates from desire. T or F

True

For Judaism, devotion and obedience to Yahweh will result in special consideration and protection. T or F

True

For Kierkegaard, a "leap of faith" serves no purpose in knowing whether God exists or not. T or F

False

For Clifford, one can believe in God's existence without sufficient evidence. T or F

False

For James, one can believe in God's existence without sufficient evidence. T or F

True

A term used to designate the complex mosaic of religious beliefs and practices of the majority of people in India.

Hinduism

A monotheist religion that believes Muhammad is the last and final prophet to receive the word of God (Allah).

Islam

A nontheist religion that believes in the "ultimate transformation" through an aspiration to escape the world of suffering by achieving Nirvana, which is the ultimate egoless state of bliss.

Buddhism

Localized religions that emphasize the development of proper relationship with the spirit world and that this spiritual world is connected with the physical world.

Indigenous Sacred Ways

A way of life inspired from the rhythms of the natural phenomena.

Taoism

A monotheist religion that believes God (Yahweh) entered into a covenant with Abraham. Through devotion and obedience to the Yahweh, the believers will enjoy special consideration and protection.

Judaism

A monotheist religion that split off from Judaism and believes that Jesus is the son of God and savior whose death and resurrection makes it possible for believers' souls to enjoy eternal life in Heaven.

Christianity

Who defined religion as "a means toward ultimate transformation?"
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani

A Streng

Who argued that religion is a human construction, an idealized perfection?
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani

B Feuerbach

Who argued that all religions are expressions of a patriarchal reality in which women are placed in a subjugated position?
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani

C Daly

Who believed that religion is a vital personal quest all must face when confronted with the possible meaninglessness of life?
A Streng
B Feuerbach
C Daly
D Nishitani

D Nishitani

Religions that remain tied to the original people and location from which they developed are called:
A Christianity
B Islam
C Taoism
D Indigenous sacred ways
E none of the above

D Idigenous sacred ways

Of the following, which religion does not believe in a transcendent being or beings?
A Christianity
B Islam
C Judaism
D Buddhism
E Hinduism

D Buddhism

Of the following, which religion believes that souls can have eternal salvation due to a belief in Jesus?
A Christianity
B Islam
C Judaism
D Buddhism
E Hinduism

A Christianity

Of the following, which religion believes that Muhammad is the last and final prophet to receive the word of God?
A Christianity
B Islam
C Judaism
D Buddhism
E Hinduism

B Islam

Religion can provide a framework for human life. Of the following, what kinds of question can religion answer?
A What is the meaning and purpose of my life?
B What is my destiny?
C How ought I to conduct my life?
D What happens when I die?
E All of the above

E All of the above

The ethical theory that focuses on the moral quality of individual character rather than individual actions is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C consequentialism
D all of the above
E none of the above

A virtue ethics

The ethical theory that focuses on the notion of duty and obligations as the standard for determining the moral value of actions is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C consequentialism
D all of the above
E none of the above

B deontology

The ethical theory that focuses on the ends of actions rather than the means of actions is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C consequentialism
D all of the above
E none of the above

C consequentialism

The ethical theory that proposes all actions should promote the greatest happiness and least amount of suffering for the greatest number of people is:
A virtue ethics
B deontology
C divine command theory
D existential ethics
E utilitarianism

E utilitarianism

Who argued that an act is moral when it produces the most pleasure and least suffering or pain?
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre

D Bentham

Who believed that the principle of utility ought to be applied to non human animals as well as humans?
A Aristotle
B Mill
C Rand
D Epicurus
E SartrE

B Mill

Who argued that to be virtuous is to seek the "Golden Mean?"
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre

A Aristotle

Who argued that moral value is determined by following the maxims prescribed by reason?
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre

B Kant

Who claimed that we must recognize that the moral choices we make are for all humankind and we must resist the urge to escape this responsibility for all humankind?
A Aristotle
B Kant
C Rand
D Bentham
E Sartre

E Sartre

Who agued that individual actions are motivated by a "caring response" rooted in "natural caring?"
A Noddings
B Kant
C Rand
D Mill
E Sartre

A Noddings

According to de Beauvoir, what gives life meaning?
A relationship to God
B relationship to the Good
C relationship with oneself
D relationship to others
E all of the above

E All of the above

For Aristotle, everyone should pursue "happiness." T or F

True

For Kant, to become moral, a person must develop the "good will" to follow moral laws. T or F

True

For Kant, moral maxims focus on the content, consequences, and intentions of actions. T or F

False

For Epicurus, to pursue sensual pleasure was the sole purpose in life. T or F

False

Ethical hedonism is the view that an action's consequences determine its moral value. T or F

True

For Mill, there is no distinction between intellectual pleasures and sensual pleasures. T or F

False

Singer argued that "specieism" is morally wrong and employed the principle of utility as justification. T or F

True

The hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative are two kinds of moral imperatives. T or F

True

Existential ethics are devoid of moral values. T or F

False

Nietzsche believed that we must exercise our "will to power" to the fullest possible extent. T or F

True

For Camus, finding meaning in life is impossible. T or F

False

Virtue is selfishness or Egoism. _____

Rand

Duty and obligations are the standard for determining the moral value of actions. ______

Kant

Developed the hedonistic calculus. ______

Bentham

Argued that freedom only has meaning in relationship to others who are exercising their freedom of choice. ______

De Beauvoir

Emphasized the ethics of care being rooted in natural caring. _____

Noddings

Argued that the principle of utility is applicable to non human and human animals. ______

Mill

Argued that the accumulation of moral actions builds a consistent moral character. ______

Aristotle

Believed that one must never succumb to the values of the crowd. _____

Kierkegaard

Proposed that we avoid the inauthentic life and resist the urge to escape responsibility for all humankind. ______

Sartre

Which of the following concepts must be considered when defining an ideal just society?
A Justice
B Duty
C Rights
D Freedom
E All of the above

E All of the above

Who argued that an ideal state could only be achieved by a commitment to the principles of virtue, both by the leaders and the citizens?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle

A Confucius

Who claimed that society ought to be based on function and harmony?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle

B Plato

Who believed that the state is prior to the individual?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle

E Aristotle

Who argued that humans are fundamentally predisposed to selfishness and "state of nature," and when unrestrained by laws, leads to chaos?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Aristotle

D Hobbes

Who believed that humans are governed by natural laws and entitled to inalienable rights, such as the right to life, liberty, health, and property?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E Rawls

C Locke

Who claimed that to conceive of a fair and just society, we must assume a "veil of ignorance" regarding our own standing and situation within that idealized society?
A Confucius
B Plato
C Locke
D Hobbes
E none of the above

E none of the above

What is the sociopolitical view that believes society's resources belong to all members and ought to be shared with everyone?
A liberalism
B capitalism
C socialism
D all of the above
E none of the above

C socialism

What is the sociopolitical view that champions the liberty, rights, and responsibilities of the individual?
A liberalism
B capitalism
C socialism
D all of the above
E none of the above

A liberalism

Who argued that a reconsideration of traditional gender roles is necessary so we can develop a more just and fair society?
A Aristotle
B Plato
C Hobbes
D Okin
E all of the above

D Okin

Distributive justice is a theory that deals with how society's wealth, opportunity, and power should be distributed. T or F

True

Retributive justice is a theory that deals with how societies should treat those who violate laws. T or F

True

For Plato, a just society allows for civil disobedience. T or F

False

For Aristotle, living in society is unnatural. T or F

False

A social contract is an agreement between people and their rulers or among people in the community. T or F

True

For Hobbes and Locke, individual must be coerced to enter into a social contract. T or F

False

For Rawls, a society is just only if it is truly fair. T or F

True

For Marx, it is inevitable that the proletariat will rise in revolution against the bourgeoisie. T or F

True

Capitalism is a social organization based on communal ownership of resources and self-government. T or F

False

Mill believed that it was never acceptable to interfere with an individual's liberty. T or F

False

A society ought to be based on a social contract recognizing certain inalienable rights for individuals. ______

Locke

For there to be meaningful justice, a radical restructuring of gender roles is necessary. ______

Okin

Rejects the idea that government has the right to interfere with individual liberty except in those cases where the general welfare of others is threatened. _____

Mill

Argued that humans do have the right to defend themselves and through the use of reason recognize the necessity of a social contract. _____

Hobbes

Argued that "man is a political creature" by nature. ______

Aristotle

Believed society consisted of three classes: philosopher-kings, guardians, and workers. ________

Plato

Developed a view of society that has dominated Chinese culture. ______

Confucius

Argued that capitalism is flawed. ______

Marx

Believed in two principles of justice: equal right to liberty and equal opportunity. _____

Rawls

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