Chapter 1, 5 & 6 Quiz

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B. a drug or treatment that is expected to have no pharmacological effect.

A placebo is

A. any drug in a class of drugs commonly used as pain relievers.

B. a drug or treatment that is expected to have no pharmacological effect.

C. any drug being tested in a clinical trial.

D. a hole in a cavity wall through which an organ protrudes.

E. a nutritive and respiratory organ in fetal development.

Why does are heart rate increase during exercise?

(Teleological) The purpose is of your heart rate going up after running is that your body and muscle need more oxygen and nutrients. The function of your heart is to pump blood.How does our heart rate increase during exercise?

(Mechanistic) Your autonomic nervous system gradually triggers a signal to the sympathetic system and it responds by elevating your heart heart rate. As you run, you are releasing CO2 at a faster rate and your heart compensates by pumping more blood faster to get give your body the oxygen it needs for the workout.

Write a teleological explanation for why heart rate increases during exercise. Now write a mechanistic explanation for the same phenomenon.

B. heart rate

You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various intensities of exercise influence heart rate. Which of the following is/are considered a dependent variable?

A. intensity of exercise
B. heart rate
C. sex of subjects
D. age of subjects
E. More than one of the answers is correct.

An adverse effect that occurs because the patient expects it to.

Page 21

What is a nocebo effect?

D. evidence-based

A physician basing clinical decisions on primary research published in biomedical literature is doing ________ medicine.

A. alternative
B. whimsical
C. holistic
D. evidence-based
E. traditional

C. quickly restore changed conditions to normal.

Homeostasis is the ability of the body to

A. prevent excessive blood loss.
B. ignore external stimuli to remain in a state of rest.
C. quickly restore changed conditions to normal.
D. prevent the internal environment from changing.
E. prevent the external environment from changing.

B. have lower concentrations of solutes than hyperosmotic solutions.

Hyposmotic solutions

A. have lower concentrations of solutes than other hyposmotic solutions.
B. have lower concentrations of solutes than hyperosmotic solutions.
C. have the same concentration of solutes as hyperosmotic solutions.
D. None of the answers are correct.
E. have higher concentrations of solutes than hyperosmotic solutions.

C. simple diffusion

All of the following are types of mediated transport except one. Identify the exception.

A. primary active transport
B. facilitated diffusion
C. simple diffusion
D. secondary active transport

E. in all of these places.

Receptor molecules are located

A. only on the cell surface.
B. only in the outer cell membrane.
C. only in the cytosol.
D. only in the nucleus.
E. in all of these places.

E. more than one of the answers

Match the potential or potential change with the causative circumstances. Assume ion movements are net movements. Answers may be used more than once or not at all.

A. resting membrane potential
B. hyperpolarization
C. depolarization
D. repolarization
E. more than one of the answers

1. K+ leaves the cell
2. Cl- enters the cell
3. Na+ enters the cell

second messenger

An intracellular signal molecule that translates a signal from a neurotransmitter or hormone into an intracellular response is called a ________.

G proteins

The ________ link membrane receptors to either ion channels or to membrane enzymes located on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane.

A. the lipid solubility of the ligand.

The most important factor determining which type of receptor a signal molecule will bind to is

A. the lipid solubility of the ligand.
B. the location of the receptor molecule.
C. the size of the receptor molecule.
D. the size of the ligand.

A. Some cells lack the necessary receptors.

Why do some normal cells fail to respond to a chemical signal?

A. Some cells lack the necessary receptors.
B. Some cells are completely without ligands.
C. Chemical signals are only delivered to specific cells.
D. Signal chemicals often break down before reaching a distant target.
E. Some cells are completely without receptors.

carrier proteins

The membrane proteins that change shape and bind with specific molecules to transport them across the cell membrane are ________.

B. secretory : receptors : target

In chemical communication between cells, a ________ cell secretes a chemical messenger that binds to ________ on the ________ cell.

A. target : receptors : secretory
B. secretory : receptors : target
C. gap : connexons : secretory
D. secretory : connexons : target
E. secretory : connexons : gap

A. plasma and interstitial

What are the two extracellular fluid compartments in the body?

A. plasma and interstitial
B. interstitial and intracellular
C. intracellular and plasma
D. None of the answers are correct.
E. plasma and the fluid portion of the blood

D. chemical disequilibrium.

Sodium ions are more concentrated in the extracellular fluid than in the intracellular fluid. This is an example of

A. electrical disequilibrium.
B. failed homeostasis.
C. osmotic equilibrium.
D. chemical disequilibrium.

C. Golgi apparatus

What organelle packages peptide/protein messengers into secretory vesicles?

A. rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C. Golgi apparatus
D. nucleus
E. lysosomes

D. 4, 2, 1, 3, 6, 5.

The following is a list of several levels of organization that make up the human body.
1. tissue
2. cell
3. organ
4. molecule
5. organism
6. organ system
The correct order from the smallest to the largest is

A. 4, 2, 3, 1, 6, 5.
B. 2, 4, 1, 3, 6, 5.
C. 4, 2, 1, 6, 3, 5.
D. 4, 2, 1, 3, 6, 5.
E. 6, 4, 5, 2, 3, 1.

B. decrease.

As the concentration of receptors on the cell membrane decreases, the response of the target cell will

A. increase its affinity.
B. decrease.
C. increase.
D. oscillate with the concentration of the chemical messenger.
E. remain the same due to saturation.

C. paracrine

What chemical messenger diffuses to neighboring cells to exert an effect?

A. neurotransmitter
B. neurohormone
C. paracrine
D. autocrine
E. hormone

C. nervous and endocrine

What two systems primarily control homeostasis due to their ability to communicate over long distances?

A. endocrine and respiratory
B. cardiovascular and respiratory
C. nervous and endocrine
D. endocrine and cardiovascular
E. nervous and cardiovascular

D. the concentration of the messenger and the concentration of receptors on the target cell

The number of bound receptors on a target cell depends on what two things?

A. the concentration of the messenger and signal transduction
B. the type and concentration of receptors
C. the concentration of the messenger and the distance it has to travel
D. the concentration of the messenger and the concentration of receptors on the target cell
E. the secretory cell and target cell

D. pathophysiology.

The study of body function in a disease state is

A. microbiology.
B. histology.
C. physiology.
D. pathophysiology.
E. necrology.

E. teleological.

"Glucose is transported from blood into cells because cells require glucose to meet their energy needs." This type of explanation is

A. theological.
B. metalogical.
C. scatological.
D. mechanistic.
E. teleological.

B. quickly restore changed conditions to normal.

Homeostasis is the ability of the body to

A. prevent the internal environment from changing.
B. quickly restore changed conditions to normal.
C. ignore external stimuli to remain in a state of rest.
D. prevent the external environment from changing.
E. prevent excessive blood loss.

B. intensity of exercise

You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various intensities of exercise influence heart rate. Which of the following is/are considered an independent variable?

A. heart rate
B. intensity of exercise
C. age of subjects
D. sex of subjects
E. More than one of the answers is correct.

B. a group of carrier proteins is operating at its maximum rate.

Saturation occurs when

A. a carrier molecule has the ability to transport only one molecule or a group of closely related molecules.

B. a group of carrier proteins is operating at its maximum rate.

C. a preference of a carrier protein for a substance is demonstrated based on the differing affinities of the carrier for the substrates.

D. the energy required to move molecules results from a high-energy bond.

E. molecules are moved by the use of vesicles.

B. only facilitated diffusion

Which of the following is a way for solutes in an aqueous solution to move from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration?

A. only osmosis
B. only facilitated diffusion
C. both facilitated diffusion and osmosis
D. None of the answers are correct.
E. only active transport

D. resting membrane permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions

Which of the following is NOT involved in creating the resting potential of a neuron?

A. resting membrane permeability for potassium ions greater than sodium ions

B. diffusion of potassium ions out of the cell

C. diffusion of sodium ions into the cell

D. resting membrane permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions

B. negatively charged.

Compared to the outside surface, the inside of a resting cell membrane is

A. electrically neutral.
B. negatively charged.
C. positively charged whenever the sodium-potassium pump is active.
D. continuously reversing its electrical charge.
E. positively charged.

D. have lower concentrations of solutes than hyperosmotic solutions.

Hyposmotic solutions

A. None of the answers are correct.
B. have the same concentration of solutes as hyperosmotic solutions.
C. have lower concentrations of solutes than other hyposmotic solutions.
D. have lower concentrations of solutes than hyperosmotic solutions.
E. have higher concentrations of solutes than hyperosmotic solutions.

D. bind to receptors inside the cytoplasm or nucleus.

Lipophilic hormones

A. cannot diffuse through the cell membrane.
B. function by activating cAMP.
C. function by way of a second messenger system.
D. bind to receptors inside the cytoplasm or nucleus.
E. bind to receptors on the surface of the cell.

d

Explain the purpose of having both the reversible GLUT (glucose transporter) transporters as well as the SGLT (secondary active glucose trasporter) transporters in the body.

1. Water Channels
2. Capillary Membrane
3. Aquaporins (Water Channels)

Water can cross a cell membrane by a variety of means. List at least three.

a

Do water molecules cross a membrane through the same molecules as other solutes? Explain.

b

Are all cells equally permeable to water? Explain.

Partially true. The two compartments have stable solute compositions, but not in equilibrium. Dynamic disequilibrium is used to describe this relationship.

Evaluate the validity of this statement: "The extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments have a stable solute composition that is in equilibrium." (be able to explain why this is true or false...)

open or leak

Membrane protein pores that are essentially always open are called ________ or ________ channels.

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