Encoding physical energy from environment into neural signals.
Organizing and interpreting sensations to create meaning. Based on experience and cultural expectation.
Body detects and perceives information on a very simple level, like seeing lines and colors. Begins with sensory reception and ends with sense integration.
High-level processing that draws upon experience and expectations.
Study of how physical energy in the environment relates to psychological experience. Includes sensitivity to stimuli.
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time.
Signal Detection Theory
Predicts how/when people will detect faint stimuli in the midst of a more noticeable background stimulus. Affected by experience, expectation, and motivation. No absolute threshold.
"Below threshold" for conscious awareness of. Hard to perceive.
Brief, often unconscious activation of certain associations. Pre-disposes perception, memory, response. EX: See pics. of kittens or dead people then see a control image; people have different viewpoints of the second slide.
Two stimuli must differ a significant constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different. EX: Two objects must differ 2% in weight.
Minimum difference between two stimuli needed for 50% detection.
Diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus resulting from constant stimulation. EX: Smelly room will gradually not smell bad.
Natural focusing of conscious awareness on a certain stimulus.
Coctail Party Effect
Ability to attend to any one voice among many.
University of Utah
Showed Cocktail Party Effect. Students driving while talking on cell phones had slower responses to stimuli.
Failure to see visible objects because attention is focused elsewhere. EX: Gorilla video.
Failure to notice changes in color, position, etc. when an interruption occurs.
If people make a certain choice and are asked to explain it, someone can alter that choice and they'll explain it without noticing.