digestive system

Created by Lauren0224 

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anus

the distal opening of the digestive tract

appendix

the narrow tube of lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum

bile

the fluid secreted by the liver that emulsifies fats and aids in their absorption

cecum

a blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine

colon

the major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rectum and is formed by the ascending, transverse and descending portions

mouth

used to bit and chew food. mixes with saliva. shapes food into small portions and is pushed into the pharynx

pharynx

the throat; common passageway for food by swallows food and moves it into the esophagus and air entering the larynx

stomach

stores food; churns to mix food with water and digestive enzymes. secretes protein-digesting hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin

small intestine

secetes enzymes. recieves secretions from the accessory organs, which digest and neutralize food. this is the site of most digestion and absorption of nutrients into the circulation

compromised of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum

large intestine

the terminal portion of the digestive tract consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum and anus. it forms, stores and eliminates undigested waste material

salivary glands

secretes saliva, which moistens food and contains salivary amylase, and enzyme that begins the digestion of starch

liver

the large gland in the upper right abdomen. it secretes bile salts that break down fats

gallbladder

a sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile and releases it into the digestive tract

pancreas

a long, elongated gland posterior to the stomach. secretes a variety of digestive enzymes and also secretes bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid and water to dilute food

it produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism

esophagus

the muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach by peristalsis

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

muscle tissue at the distal end of the esophagus that prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus.

also called the cardiac sphincter

salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

the accessory organs

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

organs of the digestive tract

mastication

chewing

peristalsis

wavelike contractions of an organ's walls; moves material through an organ or duct

pylorus

the stomach's distal opening into the duodenum.

the opening in controlled by the pyloric sphincter

rectum

the distal portion of the large intestine. it stores and eliminates undigested waste

saliva

the clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains a starch-digesting enzyme

it is produced by three glands: the parotid, submandibular and sublingual

sigmoid colon

the distal S-shaped portion of the large intestine located between the descending colon and the rectum

uvula

the fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate; aids in speech production

literally "little grape"

cheek

the root buccco means

tooth, teeth

the root dento, denti means

tooth, teeth

the root odonto means

gum

the root gingivo means

tongue

the root glosso means

tongue

the root linguo means

jaw

the root gnatho means

lip

the root labio means

mouth

the root oro means

mouth

the root stoma, stomato means

palate

the root palato means

saliva, salivary gland, salivary duct

the root sialo means

uvula

the root uvulo means

any disease of the mouth

stomatosis means

esophagus

the root esophago means

stomach

the root gastro means

pylorus

the root pyloro means

intestine

the root entero means

duodenum

the root duodeno means

jejunum

the root jejuno means

ileum

the root ileo means

cecum

the root ceco means

colon

the root colo, colono means

sigmoid colon

the root sigmoido means

rectum

the root recto means

rectum

the root procto means

anus

the root ano means

liver

the root hepato means

bile, gall

the root chole, cholo means

common bile duct

the root choledocho means

bile in the blood

the term cholemia means

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

ascites

accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity; a form of edema.

may be caused by heart disease, lymphatic or venous obstruction, cirrhosis or changes in blood plasma composition

caries

tooth decay

celiac disease

inability to absorb foods containing gluten, a protein foing in wheat and some other grains

caused by an excess immune response to gluten

cholelithiasis

the condition of having stones in the gallbladder or sometimes in the common bule duct

chrohn disease

a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract usually involving the ilieum and colon

diverticulitis

inflammation of diverticula in the wall of the digestive tract, especially in the colon

crushing of a gallston

cholelithotripsy refers to

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

emesis

vomitting

vomiting of bile

cholemisis refers to

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestine

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

condition caused by reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus resulting in heartburn, regurgitation, inflammation and possible damage to the esophagus

cause by weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter

heartburn

a warm or burning sensation felt behind the sternum and radiating upward

commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux whose medical name is pyrosis

hemorrhoids

varicose veins in the rectum associated with pain, bleeding and sometimes rectal prolapse

piles

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

commonly caused by a viral infection

acting on the liver

hepatotrophic refers to

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

hiatal hernia

a protrusion of the stomach through the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes

icterus

jaundice

intussusception

slipping of one intestinal segment into another part below it

occurs mainly in male infants in the ileocecal region. may be fatal if untreated for more than one day

jaundice

a yellowish color of the skin, mucus membranes and whites of the eye caused by bile pigments in the blood

the main pigment is bilirubin which is a byproduct of erythrocyte destruction

occult blood

blood present in such small amounts that it can be detected only microscopically or chemically

in the feces, it is a sign of internal bleeding

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs.

may result from perforation of an ulcer, ruptured appendix or reproductive tract infection

polyp

a tumor that grows on a stalk and bleeds easily

pyloric stenosis

narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum

volvulus

twisting of the intestine resulting in obstruction

usually involves the sigmoid colon and occurs most often in children and in the elderly

may be caused by congenital malformation, a foreign body or adhesion and failure to treat immediately may result in death

anastomosis

a passage or communication between two vessels or organs

may be normal or pathologic and can be treated surgically

barium study

use of barium sulfate as a liquid contrast medium for fluoroscopoc or radiographic study of the digestive tract

can show obstruction, tumors ulcers, hiatal hernia and motility disorders

cholecystectomy

surgical removal of the gallbladder

dukes classification

a system for staging colorectal cancer based on degree of bowel wall penetration and lymph node involvement. severity is graded A to C

endoscopy

use of fiberoptic endoscope for direct visual examination

GI studies include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

a technique for viewing the pancreatic and bile ducts and for performing certain techniques to relieve obstructions. the contrast medium is injected into the biliary system from the duodenum before radiographs are taken

ostomy

an opening into the body; generally refers to an opening created for elimination of body waste

stoma

a surgically created opening to the body surface or between organs

bolus

a mass, such as the rounded mass of food that is swallowed

cardia

the part of the stomach near the esophagus

chyme

the semiliquid partially digested food that moves from the stomach into the small intestine

defecation

the evacuation of feces from the rectum

deglutition

swallowing

hepatic flexure

the right bend of the colon, forming the junction between the ascending colon and the transverse colon

peritoneum

the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and supports the abdominal organs

spenic flexure

the left bend of the colon, forming the junction between the transverse colon and the descending colon

anorexia

loss of appetite. a psychologically induced refusal or inability to eat

aphagia

inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing; refusal or inability to eat

bulimia

excessive, insatiable appetite. a disorder characterized by overeating followed by induced vomiting, diarrhea and fasting

cachexia

profound ill health, malnutrition and wasting

constipation

infrequency or difficulty in defecation and the passage of hard dry feces

dyspepsia

poor or painful digestion

eructation

belching

flatulence

condition of having gas or air in the GI tract

flatus

gas or air in the gastrointestinal tract; gas or air expelled through the anus

hematemesis

vomiting of blood

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

a chronic stress related disease characterized by diarrhea, constipation and pain associated with rhythmic intestinal contractions

mucous colitis; spastic colon

obstipation

extreme constipation

appendectomy

surgical removal of the appendix

billroth operation

gastrectomy with anastomosis of the stomach to the duodenum or to the jejunum

gastric bypass surgery

division of the stomach and anastommosis of its upper part to the small intestine (jejunum) to reduce nutrient absorption

used to treat morbid obesity

gavage

process of feeding through a nasogastric tube into the stomach

nasogastric tube

tube that is passed through the nose into the stomach

may be used for emptying the stomach, administering medication, giving liquids or sampling stomach contents

percutaneous endoscopuc gastrostomy (PEG) tube

tube inserted into the stomach for long term feeding

antacid

agent that counteracts acidity, usually gastric acidity

antidiarrheal

drug that treats or prevents diarrhea by reducing intestinal motility or absorbing irritants and soothing the intestinal lining

antiemetic

agent that relieves or prevents nausea and vomiting

antiflatulent

agent that prevents or relieves flatulence

emetic

an agent that causes vomiting (ipecac)

laxative

agents that promotes elimination from the large intestine

types include stimulants, substances that retain water (hyperosmotics), stool softeners and bulk-forming agents

barium enema

BE

bowel movement

BM

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

ERCP

gastroesophageal reflux disease

GERD

gastrointestinal

GI

hydrochloric acid

HCl

irritable bowel syndrome

IBS

nasogastric (tube)

NG

upper gastrointestinal

UGI

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