Criminal Justice Exam 2

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What are the hallmarks of policing during the 1960s?

Turmoil and crisis. (Vietnam War), rapidly growing crime rate (civil unrest between cops and African Americans) ie. waltz riot.

Know the defining event that helped shape police reforms in the 1990s.

Rodney king beating and Christopher commission.

Know the federal agency that has made protection from terrorism its number one goal.

F.B.I

How are most police agencies organized?

Paramilitary and Hierarchy

Know about the education of police officers.

Most sworn officers have a limited education (all federal law enforcements must have a min. of a B.S. Degree.)

Know the term blue curtain.

Sub culture that is shaped by police officers. (secrecy, syemisim:isolation from others. Coat of silence: secrecy among cops

Know about the different styles of policing.

1. crime fighter. 2. social agent. 3. law enforcer (by the book), 4. watchmen (maintain order)

Know about police use of deadly force and the cases and Amendments to the Constitution it involves.

Tennesee vs. Garner- You can shoot a fleeing felon who is armed that is a threat to you, or to others. (SHOOT TO STOP THE THREAT)

8th amendment

right against cruel and unusual punishment (policing) police officers cannot use excessive force to detain you, cops can use reasonable force.

Know some examples of specialty courts and what types of cases are heard in the different types of courts.

Mental health court, Drug court, (explain answer)

Know the court of last resort.

U.S Supreme Court ( in federal court system), California Supreme Court (state court)

Know how many tiers are in the federal court system.

3 tiers, article 3, U.S District Court (federal trial court), U.S court of /appeal, U.S Supreme court (king & queen)

Be able to identify the term used when a right is granted by the Supreme Court.

Writ of Certiorari "cert": how to able to get to U.S supreme Court "review cases before, like a petition."

Know who prosecutors and judges are appointed by in the federal system.

I think its the president

How do prosecutors use their discretion?

establish a right to council "6th amendment" hamlin: after right for assistant to council.

Be aware of the debate between public versus private defenders.

Critical pretrial process experience... Initial Contact, Preliminary hearing, Arraignment.

Know about pretrial procedures.

8th amendment (protects bail hearing)

Why do some people argue bail is problematic?

Indictment or true bill "based on grand jury"

Why is it unlikely that plea bargaining will be eliminated?

IT CAN NEVER BE ELIMINATED

What state completely eliminated plea bargaining in 1975?

Alaska

Know what voir dire is and how jurors are released from the jury.

Voir dire: Trial court begins when (jury selection) (page 278) prospective jurors are questioned by the prosecution & the defence in order to select the jury. -remove prospective juror.... 1. challenge for cause: bias/not fair/ give a legal cause on why the prospective should be removed(unlimited). 2. Peremptory: can be removed without legal cause. (limited)

What is the Batson doctrine?

Batson vs. Kentucky: cannot use peremptory challenge on people who are race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation.

Know the reasons why a jury can nullify the evidence in the case.

jury decides not to follow evidence.

Judicial funcitons

Oversees trial process and consider lineancy

Landmark decision

becomes the law of U.S, state and federal have to abide to it.

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