Art History: Chapter 22 Part One

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Chapter 22, 29, 20.

Baroque

"Baroque" is a blanket term used to label art of the 17th and early 18th centuries; it was originally a pejorative term that modern art historians applied to this art which they saw as decadent. The Baroque art style is characterized by drama, emotion, and theatricality. Although classicism was still very influential, certain artists (e.g. the painter Caravaggio) moved away from those idealized models of antiquity and the High Renaissance to focus on more realistic representation of both secular and realistic subjects.

Counter-Reformation

Thirty Years' War (1618-48) involved most of Europe, and early on had to do with Protestant vs. Catholic elements.
As we saw in the 16th century, artistic styles and subject matter varied according to Catholic or Protestant contexts. In Catholic countries (Italian states, Spain, France), art and architecture were part of Counter-Reformation politics - it could be used to attract worshipers and communicate the legitimacy and authority of the Catholic Church.
According to Counter-Reformation strategy, religious art should communicate clearly and be decorous (appropriate).

Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy

CARAVAGGIO,
Calling of St Matthew (Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy), 1599-1600, oil on canvas (see p. 723).

tenebrism

use of extreme chiaroscuro that creates dramatic contrast of light and dark shadow in a painting. (See Caravaggio.)

Caravaggio, Saint Matthew and the Angel, 1602-3. Oil on canvas.

ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI,
Judith Slaying Holofernes,
ca. 1614-1620, oil on canvas

PIETRO DA CORTONA, Glorification of the Papacy of Urban VIII, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy, 1633-1639.

"illusionistic ceiling" common in baroque architecture, makes ceilings seem to open up. Made for the family of the pope (Urban the Eighth.)

GIANLORENZO BERNINI,
David, 1623, marble,
approx. 5' 7" high

GIANLORENZO BERNINI,
Cornaro Chapel, 1645-1652, marble and stucco,
Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy

GIANLORENZO BERNINI,
Cornaro Chapel, 1645-1652, marble and stucco,
Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy

Relief of the patrons watching activity in the chapel: stage-like.

GIANLORENZO BERNINI,
Ecstasy of St Teresa, 1645-1652, marble, 11' 6" high
(Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy)

Exemplary of counter-reformation: Emphasis on more spiritual experience/direct experience. very busy drapery, tension in the moment right before her heart is pierced by the arrow. Inherently "romantic." (She's on a cloud!)

GIANLORENZO BERNINI, St Peter's Piazza, 1656-1666, Rome, Italy
(basilica nave and façade by Carlo Maderno, 1607-1626)

GIANLORENZO BERNINI, St Peter's Piazza, 1656-1666, Rome, Italy
(basilica nave and façade by Carlo Maderno, 1607-1626)

FRANCESCO BORROMINI,
San Carlino (or San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane)
1665-1676,
Rome, Italy

(Rounded Building)

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