Art History: Chapter 22 Part Two
|FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3' 11 1/2" x 3' 4 ¾"|
Spain: 17th Century. Context: Staunchly catholic, Spanish Inquisition, Golden Age of Spanish painting. Inspired by Caravaggio. Signature looks plastered onto the painting, alluding to the fact its just a painting as a means to avoid inspiring idolatry. Counter reformation ties: easy to understand, realistic (painted from life.)
|DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10' 5" x 9'|| |
Painter to king phillip/queen marana. Viewer in implied position of king/queen? Painterly: strokes are visible.
|Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-11. Oil on canvas (approx 15' x 21')|| |
Flanders- Flemish painter. Context: Under Spanish Control (Catholic.) Altarpiece for high altar. Venetian colore-like palette, dramatic lights and darks, but not as extreme as Caravaggio. Strong diagonal. Flemish in detail.
| PETER PAUL RUBENS, Henry IV Receiving the Portrait of Marie de' Medici, 1621-1625. Oil on canvas|
(approx. 5' 1" x 3' 9 1/2")
Attempt to -romanticize- a train-wreck of a (political?) marriage.
|ANTHONY VAN DYCK, Charles I at the Hunt, ca. 1635. Oil on canvas, approx. 9' x 7'.|| |
English Baroque. Figure off center makes composition more interesting. Romanticizing Charles I, who was executed after the English civil war: result of religious conflict.
| 22-37 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632|
Oil on canvas, 5' 3 3/4" x 7' 1 ¼"
Group portrait of guild members. Without aristocracy, paintings used to represent identity. Very active image depicting purpose of guild: partly result of slight diagonal of corpse.
|Dutch Baroque||Netherlands: thriving merchant class, especially after Spanish aristocracy/monarchy removed, putting wealthy merchants in power. No longer a demand for religious paintings. Specialization begins.|
|Baroque qualities||Dramatic lighting, (high contrast.) Earthy, natural palette with only spots of brighter color. Emphasis placed on activity and use of interesting angles. For instance: each sitter is at a unique angle and has a unique expression.|
|Etching|| Etching= printmaking|
method; the etcher
prepares a metal plate with a wax or resin coating, then scratches a design into the ground, exposing the metal; the plate is dipped into acid, which bites the metal, creating recesses for ink. (The process could be repeated to create different 'states.')
|REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Three Crosses, (third state), 1653. Etching, approx 15" x 18"|| |
Same dramatic lighting present in his paintings.
| JAN VERMEER, The Letter, 1666. Oil on canvas,|
1' 5 1/4" x 1' 3 ¼".
Only approx. 32 paintings known. Artist was also a bartender/art dealer.
|Genre Scenes||Slice of life, disheveled, from a voyeuristic perspective.|
| Pieter Claesz, Still Life with a Tazza, 1636|
Oil on panel (approx 17 x 24")
Almost exclusively painted still life paintings, often containing the same items. Showing off abilities with different surfaces. Vani tas.
|Vani Tas||"Vanity"; the fleeing quality of life. Don't put too much value in earthly life: it will pass.|
| Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life, ca. 1700.|
Oil on canvas (30 x 24")
Typical fare for female artists of the time: accesible items available close to home and support from wealthy/artist father.
| NICOLAS POUSSIN, Et in Arcadia Ego, ca. 1655.|
Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 10" x 4'. Louvre, Paris.
Arcadia: idealized pastured realm. Arcadia Ego: Even in the idillic land of Arcadia, there is death. French Baroque: classical elements in French context. Helps develop landscape painting.
|French Baroque/ Nicholas:||(Nicholas) highly inspired by the high renaissance instead of Caravaggio. Helps develop landscape painting. Classical elements in French context.|
|Hyacinth Rigaud, Louis XIV, 1701. Oil on canvas (approx 9' x 7')|
|Aerial view of palace at Versailles, France, 1668-85, begun by Louis Le Vau and continued by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, and a portion of the gardens and surrounding area.|
|Le Vau and Mansart, Garden façade of Versailles Palace|
|JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART and CHARLES LE BRUN, Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), palace of Versailles, Versailles, France, ca. 1680.|
|SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN, Saint Paul's Cathedral, London, England, 1675-1710.|